Rulings on evidence
Objection - motion to strike evidence being emtered
Offer of Proof - records an objection to evidence ntot being necessary.
Either is needed before judge makes definitive ruling on admissibility in order to preserve the objection for appeal. Neither is needed to object on appeal for plain error in asdmission.
Judicial notice - court's acceptance of fact without formal proof. Available only for adjudicative facts. Jury in civil case must acept judicial notice facts as true; criminal juries may, but aren't required to.
NY Rule: under federal rule, judge MUST take judicial notice upon request from a party, under NY rule, judge has ultimate decision whether to take judicial notice. BUT judge MUST take notice (without request) of common law, constitutions, and public statutes of US gov't and state governments, but need not take judicial notice of acts of federal and state congresses, ordinances and regs of agencies, and laws of foreign countries.