BIOL 1306 Exam 2

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BIOL 1306 Exam 2
2014-03-16 04:51:39

Exam 2 practice questions and vocabulary
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  1. host range
    the number of species or spectrum of host cells the virus can infect
  2. acquired
    immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    a condition caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in which the body’s T-helper cells are reduced leaving the victim subject to opportunistic diseases
  3. Archaea
    One of the three domains consisting of prokaryotes that almost solely inhabit extreme environments and that are distinct from Bacteria.
  4. Bacteria
    One of the three domains consisting of prokaryotes that are distinct from Archaea.
  5. bioremediation
    the use of bacteria and/or archaea to degrade pollutants in the environment
  6. capsid
    the outer shell of a virus that encloses its nucleic acid
  7. Crenarchaeota
    a phylum of the Archaea kingdom. One of the three divisions of Archaeans. Shaped like filaments, rods, discs, or spheres. Metabolically diverse, but some make ATP through fermentation. Present in extreme environments, such as high-pressure, very hot, cold, or acidic environments
  8. Euryarchaeota
    One of the three divisions of Archaeans. Come in many shapes. Live in every conceivable habitat, including high-salt, high-pH, and low-pH environments. Include the methanogens, which contribute about 2 billion tons of methane to the atmosphere each year.
  9. extremophile
    bacteria or archaea that live in high-salt, high-temperature, low-temperature, or high-pressure habitats
  10. gram stain
    the type of cell wall a bacteria has can be distinguished by treatment with a violet dye called this
  11. gram-negative
    bacteria with a thin peptidoglycan layer that does not retain the violet dye, but picks up the counterstain and appears pink or red. Have a cell wall with two components: a thin layer containing peptidoglycan and an outer phospholipid bilayer.
  12. gram-positive
    bacteria with a thick peptidoglycan cell wall that retains the violet dye and appears deep blue or purple
  13. absorptive feeding
    occurs when nutrients are taken up directly from the environment, across the plasma membrane. Common with protists.
  14. Actinobacteria/high-GC
    a group of gram-positive bacteria. Have high guanine and cytosine content in their DNA. Some species live as decomposers in soil; some live in association with plant roots and fix nitrogen. Tuberculosis and leprosy are caused by members of this group.  Shape: rods or filaments
  15. aerobic respiration
    a form of cellular respiration where cells use oxygen as the final electron acceptor. Once oxygen was common in the oceans, cells could carry out this type of respiration
  16. anaerobic respiration
    cells use compounds other than oxygen as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain during cellular respiration
  17. Cyanobacteria
    a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through oxygenic photosynthesis.  they produce oxygen, nitrogen, and organic compounds that feed other organisms in aquatic environments. They are found as chains or colonies.
  18. Firmicutes/low-GC
    a group of gram-positive bacteria. Have low guanine and cytosine content in their DNA. They are metabolically diverse. Species in this group are important components of soil. Some species in this group cause diseases, yet we use some to ferment milk into yogurt. Shape: rod or sperical
  19. alternation of generations
    a feature of many microbial eukaryote life cycles, which include a multicellular diploid phase and a multicellular haploid phase
  20. Alveolata
    Supergroup. Eukaryote. Unicellular organisms with sacs (alveoli) beneath their plasma membranes. Iincludes the marine dinoflagellates; the parasitic apicomplexans; and diverse, highly motile ciliates.
  21. Euglenoids
    belong to group Excavata. Group of flagellates.
  22. Choanoflagellates
    a subgroup of opisthokonts. resemble the cells of sponges and are sister to the animal clade.
  23. Amoebozoan
    Supergroup. Eukaryote. Includes slime molds
  24. ambisense virus
    Contain one positive sense region and one negative sense region (possess many features of negative RNA viruses): Arenavirus. Single-stranded RNA genomes can be classified as this
  25. amoeba (plural: amoebae)
    a genus of Protozoa that consists of unicellular organisms which do not have a definite shape. move by using pseudopodia or "false feet"
  26. amoeboid motion
    a sliding movement observed in some protists that is accomplished by streaming of pseudopodia
  27. Amoebozoa
    a major group of amoeboid protozoa, including the majority that move by means of internal cytoplasmic flow
  28. anoxic
    These are areas of sea water, fresh water or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen “dead zones”
  29. anoxygenic photosynthesis
    Many phototrophic bacteria use molecules other than water as the electron donor in this type of photosynthesis.
  30. Antibiotics
    drugs that combat bacteria by interfering with cellular functions
  31. Excavata
    Supergroup. Eukaryote. include the diplomonads, parabasalids, heteroloboseans, euglenids, and kinetoplastids. The diplomonads and parabasalids lack mitochondria.
  32. negative-sense virus
    The base sequences in the genome are complementary to those in viral mRNAs: Hantavirus, Rabies, Ebola. Single-stranded RNA genomes can be classified as this.
  33. Opisthokonta
    Supergroup. Eukaryote.  the flagellum (if any) is posterior. The subgroups are the fungi, the choanoflagellates, and the animals.
  34. oxygenic photosynthesis
    Species that use water as a source of electrons carry out this type of photosynthesis
  35. Plantae(Archaeplastida)
    Supergroup. Eukaryote.  (Plants?) glaucophytes, red algae, chlorophytes, land plants, and charophytes. All are photosynthetic and contain chloroplasts. Glaucophyte chloroplasts contain peptidoglycan between their inner and outer membranes
  36. positive-sense virus
    the genome contains the same sequences as the mRNA required to produce viral proteins: West Nile, Common Cold, Heptistis A, C. Single-stranded RNA genomes can be classified as this
  37. Rhizaria
    Supergroup. Eukaryote. unicellular and aquatic; most are amoeboid. This group includes the foraminiferans whose shells have contributed to great limestone deposits; the radiolarians with thin, stiff pseudopods and glassy endoskeletons; and the cercozoans, which take many forms and live in diverse habitats.
  38. Spirochetes
    a phylum of bacteria that are distinguished by their corkscrew (spiral) shape and unusual flagella. Produce ATP via fermentation. Common in aquatic habitats.
  39. Unikonta
    Supergroup. Eukaryote. Includes choanoflagellates and opisthokonts