HEALS Physics Hot Spots
Card Set Information
HEALS Physics Hot Spots
HEALS Chapters 1-3
The chemical properties of an atom are primarily controlled by its ________ number.
The principle unit of energy measurement on the atomic scale is the:
The chemical bond formed when two or more atoms share electrons is termed ________ bonding.
The mass energy equivalent value for an electron is ________.
The physical characteristics of the atom are controlled by the atom's __________ number.
Atomic number (Z)
The principle force involved with nuclear binding is the __________ force.
The average nuclear binding energy that must be exceeded to remove nucleons from the nucleus is in the range of __________.
Atoms with different types of nuclear configurations are termed __________.
The term used to describe the process in which light nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus is __________.
The parent for the beta particle is most commonly a __________.
The principle emission particle associated with the transformation of a proton into a neutron is __________.
The most likely radionuclides undergoing spontaneous beta decay will possess an unfavorably high N-P ratio or have an excess of __________.
After beta decay, the daughter nuclide will have an atomic mass that is __________ the parent nuclide.
The same as
The emission of a beta particle is associated with the transformation of a __________ into a __________.
Neutron into a Proton.
The fraction of the remaining number of atoms that decay per unit time is called the __________.
The ratio of the amount of energy lost by a charged particle as it traverses a given distance in a medium defines the __________.
As the energy of electromagnetic radiation increases:
I. Frequency decreases
II. Wavelength decreases
III. Speed increases
As energy increases WAVELENGTH decreases
The energy of the photons produced in Bremsstrahlung x-ray production is dependent upon the:
I. Projectile speed
II. Atomic number of the target
III. Electron to nucleus distance
I, II, III
The x-radiation emission in an x-ray tube is considered to be ___________ in nature.
The speed of all electromagnetic radiations in a vacuum is:
3 x 10
The loss of an electron by an x-ray tube electron as it passes by a tungsten atom in the anode results in a photon being produced by an event termed:
When the stream of fast-moving electrons interact with the target of the anode, x-rays are generated by 2 different processes. They are:
Bremsstrahlung & Characteristic radiation
The reduction in the number and energy of photons as a radiation passes through matter is termed:
The use of linear attenuation coefficients are applied most commonly to:
The production of scattered radiation when radiation when x-radiation strikes an object principally results from the ___________.
At photon energies of 100 keV to 1 MeV, radiation is absorbed in soft tissue mainly by the:
The concept of mass attenuation coefficients is employed to describe the attenuation of materials independent of its ___________.
During a Compton interaction, the maximum energy of a photon scattered backwards at a 180 angle will be:
The interaction of x-rays with matter that is most common in the energy range btw 150 keV and 3 MeV is V.
The emission from an unstable nucleus with the highest ionization potential is:
The linear attenuation coefficient of a monochromatic beam will tend to ___________ as the energy of the beam of radiation increases.
As the atomic number of an attenuator increases, the linear attenuation coefficient will tend to:
The interaction of an x-ray photon and an orbital electron orbital electron, which results in a partial transfer of energy and ionization of the orbital electron is called:
Pair production is a common reaction occurring in the photon energy range of:
1 - 10 MeV
The number of Compton interactions is primarily dependent upon the ___________ of the target atom.
At energies above 10 MeV, x-ray photons may interact directly with the atomic nucleus causing the emission of nuclear fragments in a process termed ___________.
The mass-energy equivalency of a positron or electron at rest velocity is:
The range of any charged particle is normally defined as the ___________ thickness of a material for which they are able to penetrate.
The rate of energy loss during an inelastic collision of a beta-particle and an orbital electron is principally related to the material's:
Neutron possessing low energies (.025 eV) are often referred to as _________ neutrons.
The principal result from an interaction between charged particles that result in ionization or excitation is called:
(elastic or inelastic)
Collisions of radiation with matter that result in no change of internal or kinetic energy of the collided pair is termed:
(elastic or inelastic)
The Sievert is the standard international (SI) unit used for the determination of:
The smallest detectable dose of a standard film monitoring badge is approx:
B. 100 mSv
C. 1 Sv
D. 10 mSv
A. 0.1 mSv
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
The most sensitive type of personnel monitoring device is the:
The fraction of the number of photons removed from a radiation field per centimeter of absorbing material defines the _____________.
Linear attenuation coefficient
The dose delivery system needed to treat most cancers needs to have an accuracy of at least ____%
An overhead sagittal laser light is useful in aligning the sagittal axis of the patient with the axis of the:
A split field test is performed to check the alignment of __________ fields.
A test consisting of a film shielded by two lead blocks exposed at two gantry positions 180° apart best describes a:
Split field test
The principle objective in performing field symmetry and flatness checks is the determination of dose rate _______ across the field.
After a split field test is performed, the acceptable limit of shift between two parallel opposed fields is:
In order to remain within the permitted dose equivalent limits for an occupational worker, an individual should NOT receive more than ________ mSv per week (______mrem per week)
As a general rule, any short lived radionuclide may be disposed of by any normal means after undergoing _______ half lives of decay.
10 half lives
The recommended annual effective dose equivalent for the skin of a non-occupational worker and the whole body (stochastic) limit for an occupational worker is _____ mSv per year. (____ rem per year)
A sharp drop in lead's ability to attenuate radiation occurs at energies above:
The fraction of time that a beam is directed at a specific barrier is termed the _______ factor.
The maximum allowable leakage for walls, floors, etc. for a controlled area is _______ cGy per week.
During a radiation treatment, direct patient assistance may be provided if the beam energy is below ______.
The neutron contamination of a photon beam is likely at energies of ________.
The relative amount of radiation that produces late effects is most often substantially _________ (more/less) than the exposure needed to cause the early effect.
The period of major organogenesis normally occurs during the ___________ of fetal development.
Second to Eighth
for embryonic death following radiation exposure is seen at a dose equivalent of approx _________.
The dehydration that accompanies the gastrointestinal syndrome is a direct result of radiation damage to _______ cells.
Radiation induced malformations of the CNS are most common following radiation exposure during:
Cells such as the erythrocyte and the spermatozoon that have a specialized function and are in the final stage of their maturation process are termed:
The irradiation of water often results in the development of a poison termed:
The natural rate of childhood malignancies will be expected to double with an absorbed dose of approx ______ to the fetus.
The biologic response to radiation can be reduced by the use of:
Radiation damage in radioresistant organs is usually caused by ___________ damage.
Vasculature damage (indirectly)
The period of time after an acute exposure to radiation in which the effects of the exposure are seen is called the:
The dose of radiation at which biological response can be noted is termed the:
The human fetus is most sensitive to radiation in the _______ trimester.
The first sign of acute radiation syndrome following a large exposure of radiation is usually:
In a linac, the cathode is analogous to the ____________.
Which is the proper sequence of materials traveled by the x-ray beam of a linac?
I. Primary collimator
II. Ion chamber
III. Flattening filter
3, 2, 1
Flattening filter>Ion chamber>Primary collimator
The negative electrode of an x-ray tube is commonly called the cathode or the:
The material most suitable for the reduction of electron contamination in megavoltage units is:
The major process by which x-rays are produced in a linac is termed:
The dominant factor that influences dose distribution in brachytherapy is the:
Inverse square law
Point A is located:
2 cm superior & 2 cm lateral to the cervical os
During electron beam therapies bulging of the isodose lines is most common near the:
50 and 20 percent curves
The energy range for electrons used in total skin irradiation should have an energy of 2 - __ MeV.
2 - 9 MeV
For electrons less than 10 MeV, what is the thickness of lead required to obtain less than a 5% transmission?