AGRY 525 Quiz IV

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MRK
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266486
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AGRY 525 Quiz IV
Updated:
2014-03-27 09:00:25
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  1. Luxury Consumption
    • K+: can be 8% of alfalfa weight (as K up, Mg goes down and get grass tetney in cows)
    • NO3-: 2-3x what is needed (can cause nitrate poising)
    • Avoid in forages with split application
  2. Nutrient Management
    • Luxury Consumption
    • N Application: early, let plants recycle
    • Foliar Fertilization
    • Match with genetics
    • Watch G x E interactions
  3. G x E interaction options
    • None: no change in rank and parallel across all locations // Homeostasis
    • ∆ Rank: lines cross
    • ∆ Magnitude: lines not parallel
  4. Ammonium Utilization
    • Simple
    • Single step (two enzymes)
    • Low energy need: 1 ATP
    • pH ~ 7.0 (neutral)
  5. Nitrate Utilization
    • Slightly acidic pH ~ most ag soils
    • NO3- -> NH4+ => protein, aa, (w/ GS-GOGAT)
    • Nitrate Reduction
    • Nitrite Reduction
  6. Nitrate Reduction
    • NO3- + 2e- + NADH -> H2O + NO2-
    • Takes CHO from Ps
    • Occurs in cytoplasm of leaf cells (usually)
    • Enzyme: Nitrate Reductase (contains Mo & inactivated in darkness w/ P)
  7. Nitrite Reductase
    • Enzyme: Nitrite Reductase
    • In chloroplasts
    • NO2- + 6e- + 8H+ => NH4+
    • A lot of energy from light rxns of Ps
    • Light is required
    • NO2- Toxic to plants (why first step must be turned off at night)
    • Regulation
  8. Nitrogen Fixation
    • N2 -> 2NH4+
    • in or near roots
    • associative
  9. Associative N Fixation
    • 5-15 lb N / acre / year
    • Rhizophere bacteria (right around the roots)
    • Sorghum: "leaky roots" give off CHO
    • Miscanthus
    • Sugar Cane
  10. When plants take up nutrients
    More at the beginning, spoon feeding doesn't = yeild
  11. Folier
    • Not good for macros
    • only micros
  12. root proliferation v. fert. location
    • roots grow where taking up nutrients
    • Root:shoot ratio rarely changes
  13. Improve Nitrate reductase activity?
    Through breeding doesn't really work
  14. Agronomic Efficency (N)
    • kg grain / kg N applied
    • new hybrids are better
  15. N cycle
    • Atmosphere: 78% N2 (N-=N)
    • To Soil: Lightening & Acid rain (11 lb/acre/yr) // Industrial fixation // associative fixation (<15 lb/ac/yr) // symbiotic legumes // Various OM
    • In Soil: Mineralization -> Ammonium -> Nitrite -> nitrate -> leach, denitrification
  16. Physiological N use Efficiency
    grams of Dry matter / mole N/day
  17. Fast growing v. slow growing
    fast more leaves = higher canopy = increased CHO = increased growth
  18. Process of Ammonium -> Organic N w/ GS-GOGAT
    • Glutamate + NH4+ + ATP -> Glutamine
    • Glutamine + 2-Oxoglutarate + glutamate synthase -> 2 Glutamates
  19. Symbiotic N2 Fixation
    • legume family
    • Nodules
    • Plant gives CHO
    • bacteria gives N
    • N2 + 6e- + 16 ATP => 2NH4+ + 2H2
    • Enzyme is Nitrogenase
  20. Inoculate for Alfalfa and Sweet clover
    sinorhizobium meliloti
  21. Innoculate for True clover (red, white, alsike)
    Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii
  22. Innoculate for Pea, sweet pea, broadbean
    Rhizobium leguminosarum
  23. Innoculate Common beans
    Rhizobium leguminosarum bivar Phaseoli
  24. Innoculate Soybean
    bradyrisobium japonicum
  25. Innoculat for bridsfoot trefoil and lupine
    mesorhizobum loti
  26. Pre-inoculated seed tips
    • keep cold
    • has to have the right 'nod' factors to recognize
  27. Lectins
    • nod factor
    • proteins on root surface that binds with
    • sugars on bacteria capsule
  28. Nitrogenase Enzyme Complex
    • multiple subunits ( Fe + FeMo)
    • falls apart if O2 present
    • takes man 1000+ atm & 600˚C to do
  29. Process of Nodulation
    • root hair grows in shepard's crook due to auxin
    • lectins allow binding
    • infection thread forms through root hair
    • penetrates cortex and grows both ways
    • white tip, pink middle and gray base
  30. Nodule cell
    • 5-20 bacteroids- contain rhizbioum
    • cell filled with leghemoglobin
  31. leghemoglobin
    • in nodules
    • binds O2
    • Protects nitroganse from O2
    • gene for globen is in plants
    • hemin is in bacteria
    • cobalt is needed for synthesis
    • has to be pink
  32. Annuals v perennials in N fixed
    • annuls- determinate nodules, slow to form (60 days) grow in circule
    • perennials- indeterminate nodules (10 days) grow in heart shape
  33. What is made with NH4+
    • Cool season legumes (clover alfalfa, trefoil, lupines)
    • = transport in glutamine (2C:1N) or aspragine (2.5C:1N)
    • Warm season legume (NOT C4) (soybean, faba bean, cow pea)
    • =Ureidies (1:1)
  34. Cell division
    • duplication of genome: mitosis
    • Divide cytoplasm: cytokinesis
    • Build cell plate
  35. Enlargement
    • Loosen cell wall: acidification, ATPase
    • Turgor pressure
    • cell wall sythesis
  36. Requirements about division and enlargement
    • Substrates; CHO, minerals, lipids, proteins...
    • Enzymes: assemble this
    • plant hormones: IAA (auxin), cytokinins, gibberellins
    • Rapid flow of water influx
    • Need both division and enlargemnt
  37. Apical meristem
    • Tip of elonginting stem or root
    • shoot:
    • initiate leaves
    • start axillary meristem
    • create nodes
    • extends internodes (slightly)
    • Flowering
  38. Axillary Meristem
    • Axil of the leaf
    • at crotch of pedal and stem
    • functions like apical meristem when needed
    • reproduction (ear)
  39. Intercolary meristem
    • stem growth
    • located at base or top of elongating internode
    • pushes cells up/down to grow
    • leaf growth in grasses
  40. Marginal meristems
    • leaf growth in dicots
    • cell division along margins
    • pushing new cells into the interior
  41. Lateral meristem (vascular cambium)
    • increased grith
    • stems, roots (like trees and carrots)
  42. Fertilizers and N2 fixation
    • inhibit
    • NO3 is worse than NH4
    • measure ethylene b/c shaped like acetylene
  43. relationship btw photosynthate availability to nodule and rate of fixation
    • light quantity: longer better
    • Source size: increase leaf size
    • CO2/O2: increase CO2 is better
    • Competitive sinks: removal of repro sturctures
    • Enough water and not girdled

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