bio 15 midterm 2

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bio 15 midterm 2
2014-03-14 20:56:24
bio microbio

bio 15 microbio midterm 2
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  1. zygospore
    fusion of haploid cells produces one zygospore
  2. ascospore
    formed in a sac (ascus)
  3. basidiospore
    formed externally on a pedestal (basidium)
  4. systemic mycoses
    deep within body
  5. subcutaneous mycoses
    beneath the skin
  6. cutaneous mycoses
    affects hair, skin and nails
  7. superficial mycoses
    localized ie hairshafts
  8. opportunistic mycoses
    caused by normal microbiota or environmental fungi
  9. Attachment
    viruses attach to cell membrane
  10. penetration
    by endocytosis or fusion
  11. uncoating
    by viral or host enzymes
  12. biosynthesis
    production of nucleic acid and proteins
  13. maturation
    nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble
  14. release
    by budding (enveloped viruses) or rupture
  15. patholog
    the study of disease
  16. etiology
    the study of the cause of a disease
  17. pathogenesis
    the development of disease
  18. infection
    colonization of the body by pathogens
  19. disease
    an abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
  20. transient microbiota
    may be present for days, weeks, or months
  21. normal microbiota
    • permanently colonize the host,
    • protect the host by
    •  occupying niches that pathogens might occupy
    •  producing acids
    •  producing bacteriocins
  22. symbiosis
    the relationship between normal microbiota and the host
  23. commensalism
    one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
  24. mutualism
    both organisms benefit
  25. parasitism
    one organism benefits at the expense of the other
  26. microbial antagonism
    competition between microbes
  27. probiotics
    live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect
  28. symptom
    a change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of a disease
  29. sign
    a change in a body that can be measured or observed a result of disease
  30. syndrom
    a specific group of sings and symptoms that accompany a disease
  31. communicable disease
    a disease that is spread from one host to another
  32. contagious disease
    a disease that is easily spread from one host to another
  33. noncommunicable disease
    a disease that is not transmitted from one host to another
  34. incidence
    fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time
  35. prevalence
    fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time
  36. sporadic disease
    disease that occurs occasionally in a population
  37. endemic disease
    disease constantly present by many hosts in a given area in a short time
  38. pandemic disease
    worldwide epidemic
  39. herd immunity
    immunity in most of a population
  40. acute disease
    symptoms develop rapidly
  41. chronic disease
    disease develops slowly
  42. subacute disease
    symptoms between acute and chronic
  43. latent disease
    disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive
  44. local infection
    pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
  45. focal infection
    systemic infection that began as a local infection
  46. spesis
    toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focus of infection
  47. bacteremia
    bacteria in the blood
  48. speticemia
    growth of bacteria in the blood
  49. toxemia
    toxins in the blood
  50. viremia
    viruses in the blood
  51. primary infection
    acute infection that causes the initial illness
  52. secondary infection
    opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
  53. subclinical disease
    no noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection)
  54. descriptive
    collection and analysis of data (snow)
  55. analytical
    comparison of a diseased group and a healthy group (nightingale)
  56. experimental
    controlled experiments (Semmelweis)
  57. case reporting
    health care workers report specified disease to local, state and national offices
  58. nationally notifiable diseases
    physicians are required to report occurence
  59. morbidity
    incidence of a specified notifiable disease
  60. mortality
    death from notifiable diseases
  61. morbidity rate
    number of people affected in relation to the total population in a given time period
  62. mortality rate
    number of deaths from a disease in relation to the population in a given time
  63. pathogenicity
    the ability to cause disease
  64. virulence
    the extent of pathogenicity
  65. ID50
    infectious dose for 50% of the test population
  66. LD50
    lethal dose (of a toxin) for 50% of the test population
  67. M protein
    resists phagocytosis (Streptococcus pyogenes)
  68. Opa Protein
    inhibits T helper cells (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
  69. Mycolic acid
    (waxy lipid) resists digestion (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) 
  70. Coagulase
    coagulates fibrinogen
  71. Kinases
    digest fribrin clots
  72. Hyaluronidase
    hyrolyzes hyaluronic acid
  73. Collagenase
    hydrolyzes collagen
  74. IgA proteases
    destroys IgA antibodies
  75. toxin
    substance that contributes to pathogenicity
  76. toxigenicity
    ability ot produce a toxin
  77. toxemia
    presence of toxin in the host's blood
  78. toxoid
    inactivated toxin used a vaccine
  79. antitoxin
    antibodies against a specific toxin