Chapter 9: Fertilization and Implantation

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BenWood
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266536
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Chapter 9: Fertilization and Implantation
Updated:
2014-03-15 10:37:01
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human reporduction
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Chapter 9: Fertilization and Implantation
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  1. Fusion of ___ (n) and ___ (n) nuclei to form a ____2n
    sperm; ovum ; zygote
  2. One of the functions of fertilization is to restore disploid (n) number of ___ chromsomes
    46
  3. Another function of fertilization is to determine chromosomal ___ of embryo.
    Sex (XX or XY)
  4. Another function of fertilization is to intiate ____.
    Embryogenesis- formation and development of the embryo.
  5. Secondary ____ is expelled from ovary during ovulation.
    Oocyte
  6. Secondary oocyte is arrested in ____ of ____
    Metaphase; Meiosis II
  7. ___ capture oocyte.
    Fimbriae
  8. ___ lining oviduct transport oocyte to ampullary-isthmic junction.
    Cilia
  9. 2dary oocyte must be fertilized within ___ hours of ovulation.
    24
  10. Cilia lining oviduct transport oocyte to ____-____ _____.
    ampullary-isthmic junction
  11. Graafian follicle layers from the outside in:


    Theca Cells, granulosa cells, antrum, cumulus oophorus, corona radiata, zona pellucida, 2dary oocyte.
  12. Ovulated secondary oocyte diagram.
  13. Sperm maturation occurs as sperm travl through ____.
    Epididymis (10-14 days)
  14. Sperm acquire ability to bind to ____ ____
    zona pellucida
  15. The ___ ___ is species specific
    zona pellucida.
  16. Sperm switch from using ___ as their major energy source to using ___
    glucose; fructose
  17. Sperm acquire ___ and ___ motility.
    • transitional; hyperactive
  18. ___ motility is forward movement.
    Transitional
  19. ____ motility is circular movement.
    Hyperactive
  20. Of the 40-500 million sperm ejected into the female vagina only ~____ make it to the site of fertilization.
    200
  21. Causes of sperm loss in vagina: ___, ___, ___, ____
    leakage from vagina, destroyed by acidic environment of 4.2 pH, failure to swim through cervix becuase it was trapped by mucus, destoryed by female's WBCs.
  22. Sperm reach 2dary oocyte in ~__ minutes
    30
  23. Sperm must undergo ___ before fertilization can occur.
    capacitation
  24. Sperm capactitation changes that sperm undergo within uterus of female that enable them to penetrate the ____ ____ & _____ _____ of the oocyte (5-7 hrs).
    corona radiate and zona pellucida
  25. During sperm capacitation ___ increases and the ___ and ___ are removed from the plasma membrane.
    motility; glycoproteins and cholesterol.
  26. Normal sperm count
    20-250 million/ml
  27. Infertile sperm count
    <1 million/ml
  28. Normal sperm motility
    > 40% motile
  29. Normal sperm morphology
    >60% sperm
  30. Normal ejaculate volume
    2.5 - 3.5 ml   
  31. Normal sperm pH
    7.35-8 (slightly basic)
  32. Source of secretion:
    Sperm
    Testes
  33. Source of secretion:
    2/3 of sperm volume
    Seminal vesicles
  34. Source of secretion:
    1/3 of sperm volume
    Prostate (zinc)
  35. Source of secretion:
    drops
    Bulbourethral glands
  36. Pathway of sperm
    Vagina -> cervix -> uterus -> oviduct (ampullary-isthmic junction)
  37. Pathway of sperm diagram
  38. Oviduct- sperm transport facilitated by ___
    cilia
  39. Sperm motility required at 2 locations
  40. Uterus- sperm transport facilitated by ___ ___
    uterine contractions
  41. Phases of Sperm-Oocyte interaction:
    Phase I: Acrosome reaction
    Initiated when sperm contacts ___ cells of 2dary oocyte.
    cumulus
  42. Sperm plasma membrane fuses with outer ____ membrane.
    acrosomal
  43. Sperm plasma membrane fuses with outer acrosomal membrane causes release of ___ ___
    acrosomal enzymes.
  44. Sperm plasma membrane fuses with outer acrosomal membrane exposes species-specific receptors on ____ ____ ____
    inner acrosomal membrane.
  45. Phase II: Penetration of Zona Pellucida
    Sperm receptors bind to ___ protein on surface of zona pellucida.
    ZP3
  46. Phase II: penetration of zona pellucida
    Sperm penetrates ____ ____
    zona pellucida.
  47. Phase III: Fusion of Sperm and Oocyte plasma membranes.

    Fusion triggers two important events: completion of ___ and 2dary oocyte -> ____ + ____.
    Meiosis II, ovum + 2nd polar body
  48. Zygote formed when male and female ____ fuse
    pronuclei.
  49. Phase IV: cortical reaction
    ____ granulse fuse with ___ plasma membrane releasing enzymes into ___ space.
    Cortical, ovum, subzonal
  50. Cortical reactions prevent ____.
    polyspermy.
  51. Implantation- process by which the newly formed pre-embryo embeds in the ____ and intiates development of the ____.
    endometrium, placenta.
  52. Male and female ___ fuse to form ____.
    pronuclei, zygote
  53. Stages of preembryo
  54. Fusion of male and female pronuclei to form zygote iniate ____.
    Cleavage
  55. Cleavage
    series of rapid mitotic divisions without growth.
  56. Cleavage: 2-cell stage
    36 hour preembryo
  57. Cleavage: 8-cell stage
    2 day preembryo
  58. Cleavage: Morula (solid ball of cells)
    3 day preembryo
  59. Blastocysts (fluid-filled ball of cells)
    4 day preembryo; 32-64 cell stage
  60. Blastocyst consists of 2 distinct tissues: ___ and ___
    Trophoblast and inner call mass
  61. Trophoblast: ___ layer of flattened cells. Guides blastocyst attachment and invasion of ____.
    Single, endometrium.
  62. Inner cell mall: clust of rounded cells attached to one side of trophoblast. Will form the ____ ____.
    bilaminar disc.
  63. Invasion of the Endometrium: Blastocyst "hatches" from ____ ____.
    zona pellucida.
  64. Trophoblast cells edhere to ____.
    endometrium (5-6 day preembryo).
  65. Two layers for trophoblast are ____ and ____.
    syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast.
  66. Syncytiotrophoblast becomes ____ as cells fuse.
    multinucleate.
  67. Syncytiotrophoblaste secretes enzyme + invades ___ and forms ___.
    endometrium, lacunae(connections w/ maternal blood supply)
  68. ____ are also produced by syncytioptrophoblast.
    hCG.
  69. Cytotrophoblast + Syncytiotrophoblast form ____.
    chorion (membrane)
  70. hCG (human chorionic gondadotropin) prevents ___ of the ___ ___.
    degeneration, corpus luteum.
  71. All pregnancy tests used today detect ___ in a woman's ___ or ___
    hCG, blood, urine
  72. Inner cell mass forms ____ ____ composed of ____ and ____
    bilaminar disc, hypoblast, epiblast.
  73. Hypoblast forms the:
    yolk sac
  74. epiblast forms the: ___ and ___
    amnion, trilamiar disc.
  75. the trilamiar disc is composed of ___ ___ and ___.
    ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
  76. Germ layer: Ectoderm
    (tell organs and tissues)
    Organs & Tissues: nervous system; epidermis of skin; hair; nails; lens of eye; mammary gland.
  77. Germ layer: Mesoderm
    Organs & Tissues: Notochord; dermis of skin; skeleton; muscles; blood; cardiovascular system.
  78. Germ layer: Endoderm
    Organs & Tissues:Liver; pancreas; bladder; tonsils; lining of digestive and respiratory tracts.
  79. Ectopic Implantation: Implantation occurs outside ____ cavity.
    uterine.
  80. Ectopic implantation: normal site of implantation is the upper ____ or ____ uterine wall.
    anterior or posterior.
  81. Percentage of ectopic implantations that are ampullary or isthmic.
    80%.
  82. Implantations near uterine-cervical boundary (placenta previa) cause severe ___ to appear during the ___th or ___th month.
    bleeding, 7th, 8th.
  83. 80% of ectopic implantations are ___ or ___.
    ampullary or isthmic.

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