Neuro Exam 2

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  1. Chapter 6
  2. What are the 3 classes of NTs?
    • Amino acids
    • Amines
    • Peptides
  3. What was the 1st identified NT
    • Ach
    • Acetylcholine
  4. What are the 2 nomenclatures
    cholinergic and noradrenergic
  5. What are the 3 criteria for IDing NTs?
    • syn/storage in presynaptic neuron
    • release by presynaptic axon terminal
    • produces repsonse in postsynaptic cell
  6. What us immunocytochemistry?
    localizes molecules to cells
  7. (Studying syn/storage) why is in situ hybridization used?
    • tech to see if neuron has the right mRNA code for a specific NT
    • helps determine if (and where) a molecule is syn in a cell
  8. What else can in situ hybridization detect?
    locaize syn of protein or peptide to a cell (mRNA)
  9. (studying transmitter localization) What is immunohistochemistry?
    • use of antibodies such as:
    • polyclonal
    • monoclonal
  10. What does immunohistochemistry techinque actually do?
    localizes the molecules (peptides, NOT mRNA) to specific cellular compartments
  11. What is qaulifying condition?
    mole evoking the same response as NTs
  12. What is microionophoresis?
    assess the postsynatpic actions
  13. What is microelectrode?
    measures effects on membrane potential
  14. What are the 3 glutamate receptors?
    AMPA, NMDA, Kainite
  15. Nicotine is a what?
    • an agonist
    • curare is its antagonist
  16. Muscarinic is a what?
    • an agonist
    • atropine is its antagonists
  17. When studying receptors with ligand-binding methods, why is it used?
    to ID natural receptors using radioactive ligands
  18. What are the 2 types of molecular analysis receptor protein classes
    • transmitter-gated ion channels
    • G-protein-coupled receptors
  19. What is Dale's principle
    one neuron, one NT
  20. What is a co-transmitter?
    • 2+ transmitters released from one nerve terminal
    • amino acid/amine + a peptide
  21. Catecholaminergic neurons are involved in what?
    movement, mood, attention, and visceral function
  22. Tyrosine is a precusor for what 3 things?
    Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine
  23. Catecholaminergic neurons degradation?
  24. Serotonergic neurons contain which NTs?
    amine NTs
  25. Serotonin is derived from what? Regulates what?
    • tryptophan
    • mood, emotional behavior, and sleep
  26. What are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)?
  27. What are the 3 AA NTs?
    glutamate, glycine, and GABA
  28. What is the key enzyme in GABA synthesis?
    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)
  29. What are some other intercellular messengers
    ATP, endocannabinoidsm, and retrograde messengers
  30. What does ATP do?
    • excites neurons
    • binds purinergic receptors
  31. transmitter (ligand)-gated channels
    • fast syn transmission
    • sensitive detectors of chemicals and voltage
    • regulate flow of large currents
  32. What is the basic structure of transmitter-gated channels? Exception?
    • pentamer-5 protein subunit
    • glutamate-gated channels
  33. Which are the glutamate-gated channels
    • AMPA
    • NMDA
  34. Glutamate-gated channels are pereable to what ions?
    Na+, K+, and Ca2+
  35. Glutamate-gated channels are voltage dependent and what does this have?
    • Mg "plug" that blocks the channel at rest
    • "plug" is removed by depolarization
  36. What do GABA-gated channels do?
    bind ethanol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates
  37. What is the structure of G-protein coupled recpetors?
    single polypeptide with 7 membrane-spanning alpha-helices
  38. Ubiquitous G-protein
    • the GTP binding
    • signal is from the receptor to effector proteins
  39. What are the 5 steps for G-protein operation
    • 1. inactive: 3 subunits
    • 2. active: bumps into activated receptor and exchanges GDP for GTP
    • 3. G(alpha) and G(beta) influence effector proteins
    • 4. G(alpha) inactivates by slowly converting GTP to GDP
    • 5. G(beta) recombine with G(alpha)
  40. What are the two routes in the GPCR effector system?
    • the shortcut pathway (receptor to G-protein), fast/local
    • second messenger cascade (couples NT w/ downstream enzyme activation)
  41. GPCR effector system: push-pull method
    • Gi inhibits AC
    • B adrenergic receptors activate AC via Gs
    • alpha2 adrenergic receptors inhibit AC via Gi
  42. Cascade split
    G-protein activates PLC--> generates DAG and IP3--> activates different effectors
  43. What are the "downstream" enzymes
    • Protein kinase A (PKA)
    • Protein kinase C (PKC)
    • calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (caMK)
  44. What is divergence?
    one transmitter activates more than one receptor subtype--> greater postsynaptic repsonse
  45. What is convergence?
    different transmitters converge to affect same effector system
  46. Chapter 7
  47. What is the Broca region for?
    discrete regions in the brain for speech
  48. What is included in the CNS?
    brain and spinal cord
  49. What is included in the PNS?
  50. Location of spinal cord, communicates with, and sends info to what?
    • surrounded by bony vert colm attached to the brain stem
    • sends info to skin, joints, and muscles
    • comm w/ spinal nerves (dorsal/ventral)
  51. What does the somatic PNS include?
    innervates skin, joints, and muscles
  52. What does the visceral PNS include
    internal organs, blood vessels and glands
  53. What are doral root ganglia?
    clusters of neuronal cell bodies outside the spinal cord that contains somatic sensory axonx
  54. afferent axons
    carry info towards a point
  55. efferent axons
    carry info awat from a point
  56. What are the meninges that surround the brain
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid membrane
    • pia mater
  57. What is the choroid plexus
    specialized tissue in ventricles (spaces) that secrete CSF
  58. What is the path of the cerebrum?
    • brain stem core
    • subarachnoid space
    • special structures called arachnoid villi absorb CSF
  59. What are the 4 ventricles?
    • lateral
    • third
    • fourth
  60. chapter 8
  61. Where does the neural tube originate
    from the ectoderm
  62. What forms which neurons
    • neural tube-CNS neurons
    • neural crest-PNS neurons
  63. What are the 3 primary brain vesicles
    • from rostral to caudal:
    • forebrain (pro), midbrain (meso), and hindbrain (rhom)
  64. What are the secondary vesicles from the forebrain (pro)
    telencephalon, diencephalon, and optic vesciles
  65. What are the secondary vesicles from the midbrain (meso)
  66. What are the secondary vesicles from the hindbrain (rhom)
    metencepahlon and myelencephalon
  67. Telencephalon has what included in it
    • cerebral hemispheres
    • olfactory bulbs
    • basal telencephalon
  68. What does the diencephalon have in it?
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  69. What is the medial part of the telencephalon?
  70. What is the middle (new) part of the telencephalon?
  71. What is the lateral part of the telencephalon?
    olfactory cortex (old)
  72. What matter includes what organ section of the brain?
    • corpus callosum
    • cortical white matter
  73. What is the function of the cerebral cortex?
    analyze sensory input and command output
  74. What is the thalamus known as?
    gateway of the cortex
  75. How thalamus-cortex/ cortex-thalamus axons pass through?
    through the internal capsule
  76. What is the function of the hypothalamus?
    control visceral nervous system
  77. What does the midbrain contain?
    axons descending from cortex to brain stem and spinal cord
  78. The tectum includes what two areas?
    • superior colliculus-gets info from eye
    • inferior colliculud-gets info from ear
  79. What is the regmentum have?
    • substantia nigra (black substance)
    • red nucleus
  80. What is the fucntion of the cerebellum?
    movement control
  81. Pons function
    switchboard connecting cerebral cortex to cerebellum
  82. Cochlear nuclei function
    project axons to different structures
  83. What is decussation
    crossing of axons from one side to the other
  84. Frontal lobe
    elaboration of conscious thought
  85. Between frontal lobe/parietal lobe
    control movement of voluntary skeletal muscles
  86. parietal lobe
    temp, touch, pressure, and pain from skin
  87. temporal lobe
    hearing and smelling
  88. occiptial lobe
  89. Chapter 9
  90. Chapter 10
  91. What does umami mean?
    • delicious
    • savory taste og glutamate in the culinary form of monosodium glutamate
  92. Sweet
    sugars like fructose, sucrose
  93. Bitter
    ions like K+ and Mg2+, quinine, and caffeine
  94. Salty
    na+ ions
  95. Sour
    proton (H+)
  96. Poisonous substances usually taste how?
  97. Tip of the tongue
  98. back of tongue
  99. sides of tongue
    saltiness and sourness
  100. What are the 3 types of papillae
    foliate, vallate, fungiform papillae
  101. What is the threshold concentraion
    just enough exposure for papilla to detect taste
  102. The steps for transduction process
    • pass directly through ion channels
    • bind to and block ion channels
    • bind to G-protein-coupled receptors
  103. Saltiness
    • salt-sensitive taste cells
    • special Na+ selective channel
  104. What drug is used to block saltiness
  105. Sourness
    sourness (acidity low ph)
  106. For bitterness, sweetness, and Umami
    the difference in type of G-protein-coupled receptors
  107. How many types of butter recepetors are there and in what family?
    • 30 types
    • T2R family
  108. What are the 2 types of taste receptors?
  109. What do umami receptors detect
    amino acid
  110. Gustatory nucleus is where and what does it do?
    • (medulla)
    • point where taste axons buncle and synapse
  111. Ventral posterior medial nucleus is where and what does it do?
    • thalamus
    • deals with sensory info from the head
  112. primary gustatory is where and does what?
    receives axons from VPM taste neurons
  113. What is ageusia
    loss of taste perception
  114. What two organs are important for gustation
    hypothalamus and basal telencephalon
  115. What is the cribriform plate
    a thin sheet of bone through which small clusters on axons penetrate, coursing to the olfactory bulb
  116. What is anosmia
    inability to smell
  117. What 3 things does the olfactory epithelium include
    • olfactory receptor cells
    • supporting cells
    • basal cells
  118. Adaptation
    Decreased response despite continuous stimulus
  119. axons of the olfactory tract do what?
    branch and enter the forebrain
  120. axons in the neocortex do what
    reach pathway that synspases in medial dorsal nucleus
Card Set:
Neuro Exam 2
2014-03-21 18:13:31
Neuro Exam

Neuro Exam 2
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