Neuro Exam 2
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Neuro Exam 2
Neuro Exam 2
What are the 3 classes of NTs?
What was the 1st identified NT
What are the 2 nomenclatures
cholinergic and noradrenergic
What are the 3 criteria for IDing NTs?
syn/storage in presynaptic neuron
produces repsonse in
What us immunocytochemistry?
localizes molecules to cells
(Studying syn/storage) why is in situ hybridization used?
tech to see if neuron has the right mRNA code for a specific NT
helps determine if (and where) a molecule is syn in a cell
What else can in situ hybridization detect?
locaize syn of protein or peptide to a cell (mRNA)
(studying transmitter localization) What is immunohistochemistry?
use of antibodies such as:
What does immunohistochemistry techinque actually do?
localizes the molecules (
, NOT mRNA) to specific cellular compartments
What is qaulifying condition?
mole evoking the same response as NTs
What is microionophoresis?
What is microelectrode?
measures effects on membrane potential
What are the 3 glutamate receptors?
AMPA, NMDA, Kainite
Nicotine is a what?
curare is its antagonist
Muscarinic is a what?
atropine is its antagonists
When studying receptors with ligand-binding methods, why is it used?
using radioactive ligands
What are the 2 types of molecular analysis receptor protein classes
transmitter-gated ion channels
What is Dale's principle
one neuron, one NT
What is a co-transmitter?
2+ transmitters released from one nerve terminal
amino acid/amine + a peptide
Catecholaminergic neurons are involved in what?
movement, mood, attention, and visceral function
Tyrosine is a precusor for what 3 things?
Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine
Catecholaminergic neurons degradation?
Serotonergic neurons contain which NTs?
Serotonin is derived from what? Regulates what?
mood, emotional behavior, and sleep
What are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)?
What are the 3 AA NTs?
glutamate, glycine, and GABA
What is the key enzyme in GABA synthesis?
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)
What are some other intercellular messengers
ATP, endocannabinoidsm, and retrograde messengers
What does ATP do?
binds purinergic receptors
transmitter (ligand)-gated channels
fast syn transmission
sensitive detectors of chemicals and voltage
regulate flow of large currents
What is the basic structure of transmitter-gated channels? Exception?
pentamer-5 protein subunit
Which are the glutamate-gated channels
Glutamate-gated channels are pereable to what ions?
Na+, K+, and Ca
Glutamate-gated channels are voltage dependent and what does this have?
Mg "plug" that blocks the channel at rest
"plug" is removed by depolarization
What do GABA-gated channels do?
bind ethanol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates
What is the structure of G-protein coupled recpetors?
single polypeptide with 7 membrane-spanning alpha-helices
the GTP binding
signal is from the receptor to effector proteins
What are the 5 steps for G-protein operation
: 3 subunits
: bumps into activated receptor and exchanges GDP for GTP
3. G(alpha) and G(beta) influence effector proteins
4. G(alpha) inactivates by slowly converting GTP to GDP
5. G(beta) recombine with G(alpha)
What are the two routes in the GPCR effector system?
the shortcut pathway
(receptor to G-protein), fast/local
second messenger cascade
(couples NT w/ downstream enzyme activation)
GPCR effector system: push-pull method
Gi inhibits AC
B adrenergic receptors activate AC via G
adrenergic receptors inhibit AC via G
G-protein activates PLC--> generates DAG and IP3--> activates different effectors
What are the "downstream" enzymes
Protein kinase A (PKA)
Protein kinase C (PKC)
calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (caMK)
What is divergence?
one transmitter activates more than one receptor subtype--> greater postsynaptic repsonse
What is convergence?
different transmitters converge to affect same effector system
What is the Broca region for?
discrete regions in the brain for speech
What is included in the CNS?
brain and spinal cord
What is included in the PNS?
Location of spinal cord, communicates with, and sends info to what?
surrounded by bony vert colm attached to the brain stem
sends info to skin, joints, and muscles
comm w/ spinal nerves (dorsal/ventral)
What does the somatic PNS include?
innervates skin, joints, and muscles
What does the visceral PNS include
internal organs, blood vessels and glands
What are doral root ganglia?
clusters of neuronal cell bodies outside the spinal cord that contains somatic sensory axonx
carry info towards a point
carry info awat from a point
What are the meninges that surround the brain
What is the choroid plexus
specialized tissue in ventricles (spaces) that secrete CSF
What is the path of the cerebrum?
brain stem core
special structures called arachnoid villi absorb CSF
What are the 4 ventricles?
Where does the neural tube originate
from the ectoderm
What forms which neurons
neural tube-CNS neurons
neural crest-PNS neurons
What are the 3 primary brain vesicles
from rostral to caudal:
forebrain (pro), midbrain (meso), and hindbrain (rhom)
What are the secondary vesicles from the forebrain (pro)
telencephalon, diencephalon, and optic vesciles
What are the secondary vesicles from the midbrain (meso)
What are the secondary vesicles from the hindbrain (rhom)
metencepahlon and myelencephalon
Telencephalon has what included in it
What does the diencephalon have in it?
What is the medial part of the telencephalon?
What is the middle (new) part of the telencephalon?
What is the lateral part of the telencephalon?
olfactory cortex (old)
What matter includes what organ section of the brain?
cortical white matter
What is the function of the cerebral cortex?
analyze sensory input and command output
What is the thalamus known as?
gateway of the cortex
How thalamus-cortex/ cortex-thalamus axons pass through?
through the internal capsule
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
control visceral nervous system
What does the midbrain contain?
axons descending from cortex to brain stem and spinal cord
The tectum includes what two areas?
superior colliculus-gets info from eye
inferior colliculud-gets info from ear
What is the regmentum have?
substantia nigra (black substance)
What is the fucntion of the cerebellum?
switchboard connecting cerebral cortex to cerebellum
Cochlear nuclei function
project axons to different structures
What is decussation
crossing of axons from one side to the other
elaboration of conscious thought
Between frontal lobe/parietal lobe
control movement of voluntary skeletal muscles
temp, touch, pressure, and pain from skin
hearing and smelling
What does umami mean?
savory taste og glutamate in the culinary form of monosodium glutamate
sugars like fructose, sucrose
ions like K+ and Mg2+, quinine, and caffeine
Poisonous substances usually taste how?
Tip of the tongue
back of tongue
sides of tongue
saltiness and sourness
What are the 3 types of papillae
foliate, vallate, fungiform papillae
What is the threshold concentraion
just enough exposure for papilla to detect taste
The steps for transduction process
pass directly through ion channels
bind to G-protein-coupled receptors
salt-sensitive taste cells
special Na+ selective channel
What drug is used to block saltiness
sourness (acidity low ph)
For bitterness, sweetness, and Umami
the difference in type of G-protein-coupled receptors
How many types of butter recepetors are there and in what family?
What are the 2 types of taste receptors?
What do umami receptors detect
Gustatory nucleus is where and what does it do?
point where taste axons buncle and synapse
Ventral posterior medial nucleus is where and what does it do?
deals with sensory info from the head
primary gustatory is where and does what?
receives axons from VPM taste neurons
What is ageusia
loss of taste perception
What two organs are important for gustation
hypothalamus and basal telencephalon
What is the cribriform plate
a thin sheet of bone through which small clusters on axons penetrate, coursing to the olfactory bulb
What is anosmia
inability to smell
What 3 things does the olfactory epithelium include
olfactory receptor cells
Decreased response despite continuous stimulus
axons of the olfactory tract do what?
branch and enter the forebrain
axons in the neocortex do what
reach pathway that synspases in medial dorsal nucleus