Government Chapter 3
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what is fedarlism?
a system where power is divided between central government and subnational or local governments
What is a confederal system?
the central government has only those powers given to it by the subnational governments; can't act directly on citizens, and can be dissolved by the states that created it
What kind of system was the articles of confederation?
What is a unitary system?
national government creates subnational governments and gives them only those powers it wants them to have
What can be eliminated by state governments?
cities, school districts, etc.
Why choose federalism?
the division of power limits the authority of the govt
What are mischiefs of factions?
groups of citizens seeking some goal contrary to the rights of other citizens or the well-being of the whole country that threaten national security
What did Madison believe would stop mischief of faction?
a properly constructed government and majority rule
What are the political costs of federalism?
- allegiance to the union can falter if too much value is placed on accomadation of state differences
- union can erode if differences among states become more important than commitment to common principles
How are political cultures different in federalism?
different states have different political styles and attitudes
What was New England and the Upper Mid-West's political style?
What was the Midwest and Easts political culture?
What was the deep south's political culture?
What are the major features of American Federalism?
- stronger national govt
- restricted some of states power
- checks and balances
What broadens federal power?
Supremacy Clause- Neccasary and proper-implied powers-elastic clause
How did the founding fathers limit states power?
- some powers are reserved for national govt
- states cant infringe on certain rights of individuals
What limits the powers of the national govt?
- 9th amendment
- 10th amendment
- article 4- govt cant abolish states
What is nation-centered federalism?
- Alexander Hamiltons view in fed. papers
- gives precedence to naitional sovereignty over that of states
What is state centered federalism?
gives precedence to state sovereignty over that of national govt
What is dual federalism?
the national government and state govts each have seperate grants of power, with each supreme in its own sphere
What did John Marshall do?
establish legal basis for the supremacy of national authority over states
What was McCulloch v Maryland?
- dispute over national bank
- Maryland taxed currency issued by bank
- Marshall said the tax was unconstitutional and that states shouldnt be able to destroy bank because it was necessary and proper
Who assumed extraordinary powers of the presidency during the civil war?
Who used their office as a bully pulpit to advocate improvements of working and living conditions?
What was the new deal?
- program to stimulate economic recovery and aid the needy during the great depression
- reg. many activities in business and labor
What was the Great Society?
- Lyndon Johnson's social welfare program
- took away some of states power
What was nixon's new federalism plan?
- consolidate several hundred grant programs into 6 major functional areas
- general revenue sharing
What was new new federalism?
bill clinton wanted to rationalize intergovernmental relations and make government more effiecient
Who was committed to the idea of states as laboratories?
What is devolution?
the return of powers to make and implement policy to subunits or lower levels of government from a higher level
Who advocated returning power to the states?
What was supreme courts view of return to state centered federalism?
swings between support for states rights and the exercise of federal authority
How does congress feel about state's rights?
willing to delegate some authority but supersedes states when it thinks necessary
How do the state's fit into the federal relationship?
balance power between washington and state capitols
What are federal state's relations?
cooperation among federal, state, and local officials in carrying out the business of the government
What conflicts are there between federal and state relations?
- unfunded mandates
- management of federally owned land
What are unfunded mandates?
laws or regulations imposed on the states unaccompanied by sufficient funding to implement them
What do Lobbyists do for states and localities?
lobby for favorable legislation and work with agencies to make sure that new regulations are implemented in a way that is acceptable to states
What is the full faith and credit clause?
requires states to recognize contracts made in other states
What are interstate compacts?
formal agreements to deal with a shared problem
Why is there interstate competition?
cultural, political, and regional differences
Do people feel closer to state or federal government?
state govt is smaller, but voter turnouts suggest there is less interest in state than national
Does federalism make government more responsive?
yes, if people's demands are rejected at one level they can go to another level
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