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What is leadership?
the processes and behaviors used by someone, such as a manager, to motivate, inspire, and influence the behaviors of others.
Leadership Approaches (3):
1.Trait Approach to Leadership:
focused on identifying the essential traits that distinguished leaders. (intelligence, self-confidence, dominance, activity etc)
- 2. Behavioral Approach to Leadership: focused on determining what behaviors are employed by leaders.
- Task focused leadership: leader behavior focusing on how tasks should be performed in order to meet certain goals and to achieve certain performance standards.
- Employee-Focused Leader Behavior: leader behavior focusing on satisfaction, motivation, and well-being of employees.
3. Situational Approach to Leadership:
assumes that appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation to another.
Leadership through the Eyes of Followers (2):
- 1. Transformational Leadership: the set of abilities that allows a leader to recognize the need of for change, to create a vision to guide that change and to execute the change effectively.
- Transactional Leadership: comparable to management, it involves routine, regimented (disipliinile allutatud) activities.
2. Charismatic Leadership:
type of influence based on the leader's personal charisma.
What are the issues in leadership? (2):
1. Leadership substitutes (asendama): individual, task and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the need for a leader to initiate or direct employee performance.
2. Leadership Neutralizers: factors that may render (osutuma) leader behaviors ineffective.
Emerging Issues in Leadership (3):
1. Strategical Leadership: leader's ability to understand the complexities of both the organization and its environment and to lead change in the org. so as to enhance (täiustama) its competitiveness.
2. Ethical Leadership: leader behaviors that reflect high ethical standards.
3. Virtual Leadership: leadership in settings where leaders and followers interact electronically rather than in face-to-face settings.
choosing one alternative from among several options.
An informal alliance of individuals or groups formed to achieve a common goal.
an innate (kaasasündinud) belief about something, often without conscious consideration.
Escalation (laienemine) of Commitment:
condition in which a decision maker becomes so committed to a course of action that she or he stays with it even when it appears to have been wrong.
Risk Porpensity (kalduvus):
extent to which a decision maker is willing to gamble when making a decision
Human resource Management (HRM):
set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining an effective workforce.
HR planning (3):
1. Job analysis: systematic analysis of jobs within an org.
2. Job description: description of the duties and responsibilities of a job, its working conditions, and the tools, materials, equipment, and information used to perform it.
3. Job specification: description of the skills, abilities, and other credentials and qualifications required by a job.
list of each management position, who occupies it, how long that person will likely stay in the job, and who is qualified as a replacement.
Employee Information System (skills inventory):
computerized system containing information on each employee's education, skills, work experiences, and career aspiration.
Recruiting: process of attracting qualified persons to apply for jobs an org. is seeking to fill.
1. Internal recruiting: considering present employees as candidates for openings (promotion)
2. External recruiting: attracting persons outside the org. to apply for jobs.
Training the workforce (3):
1. On-the-job training: training, sometimes informal, conducted while an employee is at work
2. Off-the-job training: training conducted in a controlled environment away from the work site. (study without interruptions)
3. Vestibule training: off-the-job training conducted in a simulated environment (in a more realistic way - sample airplane cabins)
Performance Appraisal (hindamine):
evaluation of an employee's job performance in order to determine the degree to which the employee is performing effectively.
total package of rewards that organizations provide to individuals in return for their jobs.
Wages and Salary:
wages: compensation in the form of money paid for time worked (8eur /hr-MEEE)
Salary: compensation in the form of money paid for discharging the responsibilities of a job. (paid for performing a job *** a year, independent how many hours worked)
special compensation program designed to motivate high performance.
individual performance incentive in the form of a special payment made over and above the employee's salary.
Merit Salary System:
individual incentive linking compensation to performance in nonsales jobs.
Pay for performance:
Individual incentive that rewards a manager for especially productive output.
incentive plan for distributing bonuses to employees when company profits rise above a certain level.
incentive plan that rewards groups for productivity improvements.
incentive plan to encourage employees to learn new skills or become proficient at different jobs
compensation other than wages and salaries
Worker's Compensation Insurance:
legally required insurance for compensating workers injured on the job.
Cafeteria Benefits Plan:
benefit plan that sets limits on benefits per employee, each of whom may choose from a variety of alternative benefits.
Equal Employment Opportunity:
legally mandated nondiscrimination in employment on the basis of race, creed, sex, or national origin.
set of individuals who by nature of one or more common characteristics is protected under the law from discrimination on the basis of that characteristic
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC):
federal agency enforcing several discrimination-related laws
Affirmative Action Plan:
written statement of how the org. intends to actively recruit, hire, and develop members of relevant protected class.
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970:
federal law setting and enforcing guidelines for protecting workers from unsafe conditions and potential health hazards in the workplace.
making unwelcome sexual advances in the workplace.
Quid Pro Quo Harassment:
form of sexual harassment in which sexual favors are requested in return for job-related benefits.
Hostile Work Environment:
form of sexual harassment deriving from off-color jokes, lewd (vulgaarne) comments etc.
Employment at Will:
principle, increasingly modified by legislation and judicial decision, that org. should be able to retain or dismiss employees at their discretion.
the range of workers' attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors that differ gender, race, age, ethnicity, physical ability, and other relevant characteristics.
employees who are of value because of the knowledge they possess.
employee hired on something other than a full-time basis to supplement an org.'s permanent workforce.
Group of individuals working together to achieve shared job-related goals, such as higher pay, shorter working hours, more job security, greater benefits, or better working conditions.
process of dealing with employees who are represented by a union
process by which labor and management negotiate conditions of employment for union-represented workers.
Cost-of-Living Adjustment (COLA):
labor contract clause tying future raises to changes in consumer purchasing power. (changes in consumer purchasing power)
Wage Reopener Clause:
clause allowing wage rates to be renegotiated during the life of labor contract.
labor action in which employees temporarily walk off the job and refuse to work.
labor action in which workers publicize their grievances (kaebus) at the entrance to an employer's facility.
labor action in which workers refuse to buy products of a targeted employer
labor action in which workers perform jobs at a slower than normal pace
management tactic whereby workers are denied access to the employer's workplace.
worker hired as a permanent or temporary replacement for a striking employee
method of resolving a labor dispute in which a third party suggests, but does not impose, a settlement
method of resolving a labor dispute in which both parties agree to submit to the judgement of a neutral party.