Chapter 3 - 1 of 2 - Expansion and Peripherals

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Chapter 3 - 1 of 2 - Expansion and Peripherals
2014-03-29 18:52:20
interface aplus peripherals expansion
Part 1 of chapter 3 study guide for A+ certification
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  1. __ is a circuit board you install into a computer to increase the capabilities of that computer. __ come in varying formats for different uses, but the important thing to note is that no matter what function a card has, the card being installed must match the bus type of the motherboard you are installing it into.
    Expansion card (also known as an adapter card)
  2. __ is the expansion card you put into a computer to allow the computer to display information on some kind of monitor. A video card is also responsible for converting the data sent to it by the CPU into the pixels, addresses, and other items required for display.
    Video Card
  3. __ are devices used to convert computer signals into sound. A __ typically has small, round, 1?8 g jacks on the back of it for connecting microphones, headphones, and speakers as well as other sound equipment. Many __ used to have a DA15 game port, which can be used for either joysticks or MIDI controllers. Sound cards today might come with an RCA jack . This is for a digital audio specification known as the Sony/Philips Digital Interface (S/PDIF). Not only does this format allow you to transmit audio in digital clarity, but in addition to specifying an RCA jack and coaxial copper cabling, it specifies optical fiber connectors (TOSLINK) and cabling for electrically noisy environments, further increasing transmission quality of the digital signal.
    Sound Card
  4. The __ is a class of internal and external devices that allows you to connect a broadcast signal, such as home cable television, to your computer and display the output on the computer monitor. __ come in analog, digital, and hybrid varieties. Most TV tuner cards act as video capture cards as well.
    TV Tuner Cards
  5. A __ card is often used to save a video stream to the computer for later manipulation or sharing. Video-sharing sites on the Internet make __ quite popular with enterprises and Internet socialites alike.
    Video Capture Cards
  6. __ is often used as a catchall phrase for any expansion card that expands the system to interface with devices that offer input to the system, output from the system, or both. Common examples of __ are the classic serial (RS-232) and parallel (printer) ports and drive interface connections.
    I/O card
  7. __ is an expansion card that connects a computer to a network so that it can communicate with other computers on that network. It translates the data from the parallel data stream used inside the computer into the serial data stream that makes up the frames used on the network.
    Network Interface Card (NIC)
  8. __ have the unique characteristic of requiring that you configure their connecting device before configuring the __. __ can generally create a link and begin operation just by being physically connected out of the box to a hub or switch. The wireless access point or ad hoc partner computer must also be configured before secure communication, at a minimum, can occur by using a __.
    Wireless NICs
  9. Almost every cellular service provider offers a line of adapters that can be installed into or inserted on the outside of desktop and laptop computers. In addition, depending on your service plan, most smartphones can be tethered to your computer and used as a cellular gateway. The __ comes with a setup program that configures the card for the service provider’s network. From that point, anytime you are in a cellular service area, you can use the adapter to gain access to the Internet through the provider or by roaming on the network of a partner or competitor with which an agreement has been reached in that area.
    Cellular Cards
  10. Any computer that connects to the Internet using an analog dial-up connection needs a __. A __ is a device that converts digital signals from a computer into analog signals that can be transmitted over phone lines and back again. These expansion card devices have one connector for the expansion bus being used (PCIe, PCI, and so on) and another for connection to the telephone line.
    Modem, or modulator/ demodulator
  11. An alternative motherboard form factor, known as New Low-Profile Extended (NLX), or one of its offshoots have been used in some types of low-profile cases. NLX places the expansion slots sideways on a __ to use the reduced vertical space optimally. Adapter cards that normally plug into expansion slots vertically in other motherboards plug in parallel to the motherboard, so their second most demanding dimension does not affect case height.
    Riser Cards
  12. D-sub connectors, for a number of years the most common style of connector found on computers, are typically designated with D Xn , where the letter X is replaced by the letters A through E , which refer to the size of the connector, and the letter n is replaced by the number of pins or sockets in the connector. D-sub connectors are usually shaped like a trapezoid and have at least two rows of pins with no other keying structure or landmark, as you can see in Figure 3.6. The “D” shape ensures that only one orientation is possible. If you try to connect them upside down or try to connect a male connector to another male connector, they just won’t go together and the connection can’t be made. Table 3.1 lists common D-sub ports and connectors as well as their most common uses. By the way, male interfaces have pins, while female interfaces have sockets. Be on the lookout for the casual use of DB to represent any D-sub connector. This is very common and is accepted as an unwritten de facto standard.
    D-subminiature Connectors
  13. __ connectors are most often used in telecommunications. The two most common examples of RJ ports are RJ-11 and RJ-45. RJ-11 connectors are used most often on flat satin cables in telephone hookups. The ports in older external and internal analog modems are RJ-11. RJ-45 connectors, on the other hand, are larger and most commonly found on Ethernet networks that use twisted-pair cabling.
    Registered jack
  14. __ ports are used for connecting multiple (up to 127) peripherals to one computer through a single port with the use of multiport peripheral hubs. __ version 1.x supports data rates as high as 12Mbps (1.5MBps). __ 2.0 supports data rates as high as 480Mbps (60MBps) high speed, 40 times that of its predecessor. USB 3.0 boasts data rates of 5Gbps super speed, more than 10 times the rate of USB 2.0.
    Universal Serial Bus (USB)
  15. While not as prevalent as USB ports, one other port has crept into the mainstream and is included as a standard attachment in small numbers, often only one, on motherboards and laptops. That port is the __. Its popularity is due to its ease of use, isochronous (synchronized clock) mode, and very high (400Mbps to 3.2Gbps and higher) transmission rates.
    IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
  16. __ is a small port on the computer that allows data to be sent and received using electromagnetic radiation in the __ band. The __ itself is a small, dark square of plastic and can typically be found on the front of a PC or on the side of a laptop or portable. __ send and receive data at a very slow rate (the maximum speed on PC infrared ports is less than 4Mbps). Most __ support the Infrared Data Association (IrDA) standard, which outlines a standard way of transmitting and receiving information by infrared so that devices can communicate with one another.
    Infrared (IR) port
  17. __ jacks and connectors (or plugs) are used to transmit both audio and video information. Typically, when you see a yellow-coded RCA connector on a PC video card, it’s for composite video output (output to a television or VCR). However, digital audio can be implemented with S/PDIF, which can be deployed with a __ jack. __ jacks are considered coaxial because the outer circular conductor and the center pin that collectively make up the unbalanced single transmit/receive pair have the same axis of rotation, co-axial. An RCA jack and cable carry either audio or video, not both simultaneously.
  18. A __ connector is a mouse and keyboard interface port. It is smaller than previous interfaces (the DIN 5 keyboard port and serial mouse connector), and thus its popularity increased quickly.
    PS/2 port (also known as a mini-DIN 6)
  19. The __ connector is a micro ribbon connector named for the Wang subsidiary that created it. It has a unique shape which consists of a central connection bar surrounding by an outer shielding ring. The __ connector was primarily used in parallel printer connections and SCSI interfaces. It is most often found on peripherals, not on computers themselves (except in the case of some older 50-pin SCSI interface cards).
    • Centronics
    • 1/8 g (3.5mm) stereo__, so called for their size and the fact that they make contact with both the left and right audio channels through their tip, rings (if they have any), and sleeve.
    • minijacks
  20. __, also known as 7.1 surround sound. The 7 represents the seven full-bandwidth channels and the 1 represents the one low frequency effects (LFE) channel, most often attached to the subwoofer. Each of the full-bandwidth channels is often represented by its own speaker in the system, but not necessarily. If there is a 1:1 channel-to-speaker representation, the eight speakers in __ 7.1 are generally placed equidistant from the audience as follows, with all angles measured from front center:One center speaker at 0 degrees (at the video source)
    Left and right front speakers at 22 to 30 degrees
    Left and right side speakers at 90 to 110 degrees
    Left and right rear speakers at 135 to 150 degrees
    One subwoofer possibly hidden anywhere in the room
    8-channel audio
  21. __ communications take the interstate approach to data communications. This is the case mainly because you can fit multiple cars going the same direction on the same highway by using multiple lanes. On the return trip, you take a similar path, but on a completely separate road. The __ printer interface transfers data 8 bits at a time over eight separate transmit wires inside a __ cable (1 bit per wire). Normal __ interfaces use a DB25 female connector on the computer to transfer data to peripherals. __ ports are faster than the original serial ports, which were also once used for printers in electrically noisy environments or at greater distances from the computer.
    Parallel Interfaces
  22. The __ parallel port only transmits data out of the computer. It cannot receive data (except for a single wire carrying a Ready signal). The __ parallel port was found on the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. It can transmit data at only 150KBps and was most commonly used to transmit data to printers. This technology also had a maximum transmission distance of 10 feet.
    Standard Parallel Ports
  23. The __ parallel port has one important advantage over a standard parallel port: It can both transmit and receive data. These parallel ports are capable of interfacing with such devices as external CD-ROM drives and external parallel port backup drives (Zip, Jaz, and tape drives). Most computers made since 1994 that included a parallel printer port had this bidirectional parallel port. For bidirectional communication to occur properly, the cable must support bidirectional communication as well.
    Bidirectional Parallel Ports
  24. Double-speed CD-ROM drives had a transfer rate of 300KBps, but the parallel port could transfer data at only 150KBps, thus limiting the speed at which a computer could retrieve data from an external device. To solve that problem, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) came up with a standard for enhanced parallel ports called IEEE 1284. The IEEE 1284 standard provides for greater data transfer speeds and the ability to send memory addresses as well as data through a parallel port. This standard allows the parallel port to theoretically act as an extension to the main bus. In addition, these ports are backward compatible with the standard and bidirectional ports and support cable lengths of 4.5 meters, which is almost 15 feet.
    Enhanced Parallel Ports
  25. There are five data transfer implementations of __, two of which are EPP parallel ports and ECP parallel ports. An enhanced parallel port (EPP) increases bidirectional throughput from 150KBps to anywhere from 600KBps to 1.5MBps. An enhanced capabilities port (ECP) is designed to transfer data at even higher speeds, around 2MBps. ECP uses direct memory access (DMA) and buffering to increase printing performance over EPP. __ also allows for backward support of the standard parallel port (SPP) in compatibility mode. The cable must also have full support for __ in order for proper communications to occur in both directions and at rated speeds.
    IEEE 1284
  26. If standard parallel communications were similar to taking the interstate, then RS-232 __ communications were similar to taking a country road. In __ communications, bits of data are sent one after another (single file, if you will) down one wire, and they return on a different wire in the same cable. Three main types of __ interfaces are available today: standard serial (RS-232), Universal Serial Bus (USB), and FireWire (IEEE 1394). USB and FireWire use increased signaling frequencies to overcome serial’s stigma and join other serial technologies, such as PCIe and SATA, as frontrunners in data communications.
  27. __ serial ports have a maximum data transmission speed of 57Kbps and a maximum cable length of 50 feet. Serial cables come in two common wiring configurations: standard serial cable and null modem serial cable. A __ cable is used to hook various peripherals such as modems and printers to a computer.
    Standard Serial
  28. A __cable is used to hook two computers together without a modem. The transmit-centric pins on one end are wired to the receive-centric pins on the other side, so it’s as if a modem connection exists between the two computers but without the need for a modem. In the null modem diagram, notice how the transmit (tx) pins on one end are wired to the receive (rx) pins on the other and how certain pins are looped back on each end to fool the computer into believing a modem is ready for its transmission.
    null modem serial
  29. __ cables are used to connect a wide variety of peripherals to computers, including keyboards, mice, digital cameras, printers, and scanners. A standard USB cable has some form of Type A connector on one end and some form of Type B connector on the other end.
    Universal Serial Bus (USB)
  30. The specification for __, also known as SuperSpeed, recommends a standard blue color coding for all interfaces and cables as a way of differentiating them from legacy cables and interfaces. The connectors also feature five additional pins that are not accessible to 1.x/2.0 connectors and receptacles. __ supports continuous bursting as well as streaming. __ supports dual simplex communications pathways that collectively imitate full-duplex transmission, where devices at both ends of the cable can transmit simultaneously. __ endpoints use an asynchronous transmission mechanism, similar to that of Ethernet, where data is transmitted at will. __ endpoints can all control when they enter low-power mode to conserve power. Error handling and flow control are performed on each link in __, not just at the endpoints. __ provides 150mA at low power and 900mAat high power allowing for the direct powering of some of the same component types that FireWire is capable of powering but that USB 2.0 is not.
    USB 3.0
  31. __ does not support bursting, the low-duration, excessively fast transmission of data, nor does it support streaming, the continuous flow of data between two endpoints once the flow has begun. __ is a half-duplex technology, meaning that all devices must share a common bandwidth, making overall performance appear subpar. __ peripheral devices must wait until polled by the host before transmitting data. The host is the only device in the __ specification that can control power management. The endpoints are the only devices that can participate in error detection and recovery as well as flow control. __ provides a maximum of 100 milliamperes (mA) of current at low power and 500mA at high power. 128 possible addresses, no more than 127 devices, including hubs, should be connected back to a single USB host controller in the computer.
    USB 2.0
  32. __ USB is always oriented toward the system from the component. As a result, you might notice that the USB receptacle on the computer system that a component cables back to is the same as the receptacles on the USB hub that components cable back to. The USB hub is simply an extension of the system and becomes a component that cables back to the system. Each hub takes one of the 127 available addresses.
    Type A
  33. __ plugs connect in the direction of the peripheral component. Therefore, you see a single Type B interface on the hub as well as on the peripheral endpoints to allow them to cable back to the system or another hub. Although they exist, USB cables with both ends of the same type, a sort of extension cable, are in violation of the USB specification.
    Type B
  34. The __ interface is about two things, if nothing else: speed and efficiency. Its first iteration, now known as __, has a maximum data throughput of 400Mbps in half duplex. Although the numbers imply that USB 2.0 at 480Mbps might outperform __ , the truth is that __ allows a closer saturation of the bandwidth by its devices due to its different encoding mechanism. USB devices are lucky to achieve half of their bus’s rated bandwidth during sustained operation. Another difference between the two technologies is the amount of power accessible to __ devices. Whereas USB provides less than an ampere of current at 5VDC, F__ specifications allow for the provision of 1.5A at up to 30VDC (and slightly more in some implementations). This production of 45W of power allows for larger devices to be powered by the __ interface, obviating the need for separate external power. FireWire 400 allows 1023 buses, each supporting 63 devices, to be bridged together. This networkable architecture supports more than 64,000 interconnected devices that can communicate directly with one another instead of communicating through a host computer the way USB is required to do. A hop can be thought of as a link between any two end devices, repeaters, or bridges, resulting in a total maximum distance between devices of 72 meters.
    IEEE 1394 (FireWire 400)
  35. __, has a maximum data throughput of 800Mbps and works in full duplex. __ carries data over a maximum cable length of 4.5 meters with a maximum of 63 devices connected to each interface on the computer. Using new beta connectors and associated cabling, including a fiber-optic solution, __ extends to 100 meters. When implemented over copper, __, is limited to 4.5m cable runs. IEEE 1394b also allows for 1.6Gbps (S1600) and 3.2Gbps (S3200) implementations.
    IEEE 1394b (FireWire 800)
  36. __ standardized the running of FireWire over the same Category 5e infrastructure that supports Ethernet, including the use of RJ-45 connectors.
    IEEE 1394c
  37. Through an internal hub, a single end device can use two IEEE 1394 ports to connect to two different devices, creating a __ pathway that allows the other two devices to communicate with one another as well. The device in the middle, which can be the computer system or any peripheral device, affords a physical pathway between the other two devices but is not otherwise involved in their communication with one another. Contrast this function to that of the USB host, which, prior to version 3.0, had to be involved in all transactions. USB 3.0 does not provide bridged networking the way FireWire does but allows the devices to initiate communication and other transactions.
  38. The __ cable is a simple coaxial cable. There are two connectors, usually male, one on each end of the cable. There are two contacts on each connector, the ground ring and the positive data pin in the middle. The male connector connects to the female connector on the equipment. It’s used to extend the reach of audio or video signals. The RCA male connectors on a connection cable are sometimes plated in gold to increase their corrosion resistance and to improve longevity.