Chapter 24

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Chapter 24
2014-03-16 01:31:29

Environmental Emergencies
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  1. Thermoreceptor
    Responsible for sending nerve impulses to the hypothalamus indicating the temperature of the body
  2. Hypothermia
    When the body loses more heat than it gains or produces. <95
  3. Radiation
    The transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without physical contact
  4. Convection
    Causes cold air molecules that are in immediate contact with the skin to be warmed
  5. Conduction
    Causes body heat to be lost through direct contact
  6. Evaporation
    When body heat causes the body to perspire and the perspiration evaporates, the heat that has been absorbed by the sweat is dissipated into the air, and the body surface is cooled
  7. Respiration
    A person breathes in cold air from the atmosphere and breathes out air that has been warmed and humidified inside the lungs and airway. Some of the body's heat is carried away with the exhalation of this warm, humidified air
  8. Hyperthermia
    When the amount of heat the body produces or gains exceeds the amount the body loses
  9. Generalized Hypothermia
    Results from an increase in the body's heat loss, a decrease in the body's heat production, or both
  10. Immersion Hypothermia
    Occurs as a result of the lowering of the body temperature from immersion in cool or cold water
  11. Urban Hypothermia
    Occurs in those individuals who have a predisposition, disability, illness, or medication usage that renders them more susceptible to hypothermia
  12. Myxedema Coma
    A life-threatening late complication of hypothyroidism that may be precipitated by exposure to cold temperatures as well as to illness, infection, trauma, or certain drugs
  13. Local Cold Injury
    The condition commonly called frostbite, results from the freezing of body tissue
  14. Heat Cramps
    • Result from the body losing too much salt during profuse sweating
    • Occasionally caused by overexertion of muscles, inadequate stretching, and lactic acid buildup in poorly conditioned muscles
  15. Heat Exhaustion
    Pooling of blood in the vessels just below the skin resulting from vasodilation as the body works to increase heat loss, but in extreme cases this can also cause excessive blood flow away from the major organs

    Patient's skin will be normal to cool, either pale or ashen gray, and sweaty
  16. Heat Stroke
    Occurs when the body's heat-regulating mechanisms break down and become unable to cool the body sufficiently. The body becomes overheated, body temperature rises, and sweating ceases