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What are mushrooms?
tightly packed hyphae
In the establishment of dikaryon, what happens?
fusing of haploid phyphae to form the n+n karyon
Where is the button stage located?
What happens when the button gets bigger?
precursor stage sits in the soil, waiting
the Universal veil tears apart and ends up at little pieces on the top while the bottom forms into the volva
Beneficial Human Relevance
1) act as decomposers, recycling nutrients such as C, N, and P
2) Direct food source
What are the types of direct food source?
- some species are grown regularly in culture
- - Agaricus bisporus: common edible mushroom
- - Lentinus edodes: Shiitake mushroom
Ustilago maydis: corn smut; eaten in Mexico and C. America
Many are collected "in the wild" and eaten (puffbalss)
Dietary value: common edible mushroom has mostly water, a bit of calories, and high in vitamin C and riboflavin and thiamin
Types of science
important in development of science of biochemical genetics
parasitic fungi are studied to produce resistant varieties
Why are they not beneficial?
1) as decomposers, they attack anything organic
2) plant diseases
3) toxic mushrooms
Both have unique basidia; not club-shaped
1) Rusts, e.g. wheat rust, caused by puccinia graminis var. tritici
- - wheat rust reduces the wheat yield, causing a loss of about 500 million dollars
2) smuts: corn smut (secretes a chemical that causes cells to form tumors--> they break open and release spores; if the smut is eaten before it breaks open, its good)
most are not deadly, just make you sick. The most deadly belong to the genus Amanita
, which is responsible for most fatalities
- 1) Amanita muscaria: fly agaric; cap yellow, orange or red with white flecks, stalk white, prominent cup at base
- 2) Amanita virosa: destroying angel
- 3) Amanita phalloides--death cap
Beneficial or not
1) hallucinogenic mushrooms: Psilcybe
Amanita muscaria (Fly agaric)
2) Toxic substances
- 1) death rare, but effects vary greatly
- 2) a) Muscarine--an alkaloid
- 2) b) muscimol (mycoatropines) + ibotenic acid
1) Affects what?
- 1) affects the PNS
- 2) slows heart, dilates BVs, drops BP, profuse sweating, salviation, blurred vision, constrict pupils, ab cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, death in some
3) atropine; not used much because it increases the effects of muscimol and ibotenic acid
4) recovery: 6-24 hours
5) empty stomach
Muscimol (mycoatrophines and ibotenic acid)
1) Affects the CNS within 30 min-2 hr after ingestion
2) Symptoms: resemble the effects of alcohol; dizzy, lack of coordination, staggering, delusions, confusion, euphoria, delirium, muscular cramps, hyperactivity, followed by deep sleep
3) Recovery: 4-24 hours
4) Treatment: induce vomiting; intravenous dizaepam for marked excitement
Amanita virosa (verna) (Destroying Angel) and Amanita phalloides (Death Cap)
4) mortality rate
1) mushrooms of the A. phalloides-virosa-verna group are the most poisonous
- 2) 2 groups that are toxic and cyclic peptides
- a) phallotoxins
- b) amatoxins
3) symptoms: can be hard to separate the two; but, can occur in three stages
4) mortality: 20-30% with treatment; > 50% without treatment; rate is higher for children than adults; depends on quantity consumed
5) even if a person survives, they may have permanent liver and kidney damage
- 6) no antidote that is totally effective
- must be started asap to prevent irreversible damage to liver and kidneys
- correct identification of mushroom is vital
- hospitalize imm.
- induce vomiting
- activated charcoal to absorb residual toxins and fluids
- Europe: kidney dialysis
- new treatment: liver transplants
What are autoecious rusts?
may apple and coffee rust
require one host
What are heteroecious rust?
cedar quince rust
life cycle alternates between 2 diffferent hosts; white pine blister rust
used by several groups of Indians in Mexico and c. America in religious ceremonies. dates back to 2000 years ago; Aztecs considered these mshrooms "Flesh of the Gods"
to genus Psilocybe: over 70 species with three predominating
small and brown
two hallucinogenic substances have been identified; both are in the LSD family. Both substances affect the CNS and symptoms can be gotten from eating either raw or cooked mushrooms
- a) Psilocin
- 2) Psilocybin: Metabolized to psilocin in vivo, so psilocin may be mainly responsible for the effects; has been synthesized and is used to treat schizophrenia
start after 30-60 min
difficulty focusing, confusion, tremors, visual disturbances, palpitations, respiratory difficulties feelings of anxiety, parnoia, euphoria, vivid mental images, tinted vision
varying degrees of delirium, laughter, loss of contact with reality
after 6-18 hours; toxins eliminated from the body within 4-6 hours
Where is the hymenial layer on basidia?
on both sides; no hyphae are sterile
What is hte gamete?
the haploid basidiospore
Life cycle of the wheat rust has how many spores?
- spermatia produce another spore