Bio Exam II. 6B

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Bio Exam II. 6B
2014-03-16 00:40:14
Plant Kingdom
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  1. What are mushrooms?
    tightly packed hyphae
  2. In the establishment of dikaryon, what happens?
    fusing of haploid phyphae to form the n+n karyon
  3. Where is the button stage located?

    What happens when the button gets bigger?
    precursor stage sits in the soil, waiting

    the Universal veil tears apart and ends up at little pieces on the top while the bottom forms into the volva
  4. Beneficial Human Relevance
    1) act as decomposers, recycling nutrients such as C, N, and P

    2) Direct food source

    3) science
  5. What are the types of direct food source?
    • some species are grown regularly in culture
    • - Agaricus bisporus: common edible mushroom
    • - Lentinus edodes: Shiitake mushroom

    Ustilago maydis: corn smut; eaten in Mexico and C. America

    Many are collected "in the wild" and eaten (puffbalss)

    Dietary value: common edible mushroom has mostly water, a bit of calories, and high in vitamin C and riboflavin and thiamin
  6. Types of science
    important in development of science of biochemical genetics

    parasitic fungi are studied to produce resistant varieties
  7. Why are they not beneficial?
    1) as decomposers, they attack anything organic

    2) plant diseases

    3) toxic mushrooms
  8. Plant diseases

    Both have unique basidia; not club-shaped

    • 1) Rusts, e.g. wheat rust, caused by puccinia graminis var. tritici
    • - wheat rust reduces the wheat yield, causing a loss of about 500 million dollars

    2) smuts: corn smut (secretes a chemical that causes cells to form tumors--> they break open and release spores; if the smut is eaten before it breaks open, its good)
  9. Toxic Mushrooms
    most are not deadly, just make you sick. The most deadly belong to the genus Amanita, which is responsible for most fatalities

    • 1) Amanita muscaria: fly agaric; cap yellow, orange or red with white flecks, stalk white, prominent cup at base
    • 2) Amanita virosa: destroying angel
    • 3) Amanita phalloides--death cap
  10. Beneficial or not
    1) hallucinogenic mushrooms: Psilcybe
  11. Amanita muscaria (Fly agaric)
    1) Toxicity?
    2) Toxic substances
    • 1) death rare, but effects vary greatly
    • 2) a) Muscarine--an alkaloid
    • 2) b) muscimol (mycoatropines) + ibotenic acid
  12. Muscarine
    1) Affects what? 
    2) Effects?
    3) Antidote?
    4) Recovery?
    5) Treatment?
    • 1) affects the PNS 
    • 2) slows heart, dilates BVs, drops BP, profuse sweating, salviation, blurred vision, constrict pupils, ab cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, death in some

    3) atropine; not used much because it increases the effects of muscimol and ibotenic acid

    4) recovery: 6-24 hours

    5) empty stomach
  13. Muscimol (mycoatrophines and ibotenic acid)
    1) Affects?
    2) Symptoms?
    3) Recovery?
    4) Treatment?
    1) Affects the CNS within 30 min-2 hr after ingestion

    2) Symptoms: resemble the effects of alcohol; dizzy, lack of coordination, staggering, delusions, confusion, euphoria, delirium, muscular cramps, hyperactivity, followed by deep sleep

    3) Recovery: 4-24 hours

    4) Treatment: induce vomiting; intravenous dizaepam for marked excitement
  14. Amanita virosa (verna) (Destroying Angel) and Amanita phalloides (Death Cap)

    1) Toxicity
    2) toxins
    3) symptoms
    4) mortality rate
    5) Survival
    6) Treatment
    1) mushrooms of the A. phalloides-virosa-verna group are the most poisonous

    • 2) 2 groups that are toxic and cyclic peptides
    • a) phallotoxins
    • b) amatoxins

    3) symptoms: can be hard to separate the two; but, can occur in three stages

    4) mortality: 20-30% with treatment; > 50% without treatment; rate is higher for children than adults; depends on quantity consumed 

    5) even if a person survives, they may have permanent liver and kidney damage

    • 6) no antidote that is totally effective
    • must be started asap to prevent irreversible damage to liver and kidneys
    • correct identification of mushroom is vital
    • hospitalize imm. 
    • induce vomiting
    • activated charcoal to absorb residual toxins and fluids
    • Europe: kidney dialysis
    • new treatment: liver transplants
  15. What are autoecious rusts?
    may apple and coffee rust 

    require one host
  16. What are heteroecious rust?
    cedar quince rust

    life cycle alternates between 2 diffferent hosts; white pine blister rust
  17. Hallucinogenic Mushrooms

    used ?
    used by several groups of Indians in Mexico and c. America in religious ceremonies. dates back to 2000 years ago; Aztecs considered these mshrooms "Flesh of the Gods"
  18. Hallucinogenic Mushrooms

    Belong to?
    to genus Psilocybe: over 70 species with three predominating

    small and brown
  19. Hallucinogenic substances?
    two hallucinogenic substances have been identified; both are in the LSD family. Both substances affect the CNS and symptoms can be gotten from eating either raw or cooked mushrooms

    • a) Psilocin
    • 2) Psilocybin: Metabolized to psilocin in vivo, so psilocin may be mainly responsible for the effects; has been synthesized and is used to treat schizophrenia
  20. Hallucinogenic Mushrooms

    start after 30-60 min

    difficulty focusing, confusion, tremors, visual disturbances, palpitations, respiratory difficulties feelings of anxiety, parnoia, euphoria, vivid mental images, tinted vision

    varying degrees of delirium, laughter, loss of contact with reality
  21. Hallucinogenic Mushrooms
  22. Hallucinogenic Mushrooms
    after 6-18 hours; toxins eliminated from the body within 4-6 hours
  23. Where is the hymenial layer on basidia?
    on both sides; no hyphae are sterile
  24. What is hte gamete?
    the haploid basidiospore
  25. Life cycle of the wheat rust has how many spores?

    • basidiospores
    • teliospores
    • aeciaspores
    • spermatia produce another spore
    • urediniaspores