A&P Chapter 5
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A&P Chapter 5
Anatomy and Physiology
The integumentary System
What layer of the skin is vascularized?
Only the dermis
Chief role is to produce keratin
: the fibrous protein that helps give the epidermis its protective properties
connected to one another by desmosomes
arise in the deepest part of the epidermis (stratum basale)
undergo continuous mitosis
Synthesize the pigment melanin
spider shaped epithelial cells
found in the deepest layer of epidermis
functions as a sensory receptor for touch
Epidermal dendritic cell
ingest foreign substances and are key activators of our immune system
What are the layers of the skin?
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: single row of stem cells - a continually renewing cell population
: web like system of intermediate filaments, mainly tension resisting bundles of pre-keratin filaments
: consists of 3-5 cell layers in which keratinocytes appearance changes drastically and the process of keratinization begins
: Only in thick skin
: outer most 20-30 layers; provides a durable overcoat
What are the two layers of the dermis?
Richly supplied with nerve fibers, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.
: areolar connective tissue; friction ridges
: 80% of the thickness of the dermis
What are the three major skin markings?
: increase friction and enhance the gripping ability of the fingers and feet
Cleavage / tension lines
: separations or less dense regions between bundles of connective tissue
: dermal folds that occur at or near joints, where the dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures (deep creases in the palm).
What three pigments contribute to skin color?
: color ranges from yellow to tan to yellowish brown; found only in the deeper layers of the epidermis; freckles and moles are local accumulations of melanin
: accumulates in the stratum corneium and in fatty tissue of the hypodermis; yellowish tinge of the skin
: pinkish hue of fair skin reflects the crimson color of the oxygenated pigment in RBC's.
Merocrine sweat glands with the secretory part coiled deep in the dermis
Secretory cells are associated with myoepithelial cell's - specialized cells that contract when stimulated by the nervous system
major role is to prevent overheating of the body
Apocrine sweat glands
merocrine glands that secrete their product by exocytosis
Their ducts empty into hair follicles
modified apocrine glands found in the lining of the external ear canal
simple branched alveolar glands that are found all over the body except in the thick skin of the palms and soles
body hair of children and and adult females
Coarser, longer hair of the eyebrows and scalp