Anthropology Exam 2 Review

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AsherWolfe
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266601
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Anthropology Exam 2 Review
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2014-10-10 14:52:40
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anthropology NMC
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college anthropology class Northwestern Michigan College
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  1. The way in which a society meets its need for subsistence is determined by a society's:
    culture.
  2. The attitudes, beliefs, labor patterns and other factors that help determine how a society will subsist are called its:
    culture core.
  3. The concept of adaptation is best described as:
    the invention of new tools or modifying materials for new uses.
  4. An example of maladaptation is provided by:
    presence of sickle-cell anemia in non-malaria regions.
  5. A culture area can best be described as a:
    geographic region in which several cultures follow a similar life pattern.
  6. The food-foraging subsistence pattern:
    involved peoples from very early human societies to abut 10,000 years ago.
  7. The food-sharing practices of food-foraging societies are:
    common.
  8. Features of social organization associated with food-foraging cultures include:
    sexual division of labor, regular sharing of food, importance of the camp as a semipermanent center of social activity.
  9. According to the textbook and video program, sexual division of labor in food-foraging societies probably arose in part from:
    biological differences between men and women.
  10. In a food-foraging culture, women generally:
    provide the larger share of the diet from their gathering activities.
  11. The term egalitarian implies:
    equality.
  12. What is NOT an egalitarian aspect of food-foraging cultures?
    Women share the same tasks and equal responsibilities with men.
  13. Two words that best describe pastoralist cultures are:
    nomadic and herders.
  14. The most significant result of the change from food foraging to food production was that:
    the nature of human society began to undergo significant change.
  15. It is believed that the transition from food foraging to food production began:
    9,000 to 11,000 years ago.
  16. The horticultural pattern of subsistence is characterized by all of the following features:
    • individual garden plots
    • use of hand tools
    • little or no surplus food production

    (NOT irrigation canals)
  17. Horticultural cultivation of crops usually results in:
    adequate food supplies but little surplus.
  18. Slash-and-burn horticulture is practiced by the:
    Maya of the Yucatan.
  19. Maize, beans, squash and potatoes are typically grown in the:
    dry areas in the Americas.
  20. The development through intensive agriculture that made possible the rise of nonindustrial cities was:
    surplus food production.
  21. A stratified society, in which people were ranked according to their work or their family, first appeared in:
    nonindustrial societies.
  22. The governmental structure of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan is best described as:
    a huge bureaucracy managing social order, taxation, and storehouses.
  23. In addition to production, the essential parts of an economic system are:
    distribution and consumption.
  24. To produce goods, a nonindustrial society needs:
    labor, technology and raw materials.
  25. In the division of labor by age found in nonindustrial societies:
    both children and the elderly are likely to have important roles.
  26. The basis for sexual division of labor in traditional societies is related to:
    cultural patterns.
  27. In sexually segregated societies:
    a person of one sex would seldom perform a task normally done by the other.
  28. The technology of a nonindustrial society is reflected in part in its:
    tools and artifacts.
  29. An example of technology typical of a horticultural society is the:
    hoe.
  30. A system of reciprocity where neither the value of what is given is calculated nor the time of repayment specified is called:
    generalized.
  31. The conditions essential for the establishment of a system of resistribution are:
    a central administration and a surplus.
  32. The 'Big Man' feast is considered a leveling mechanism because it:
    tends to distribute goods so that no one retains more than anyone else
  33. NOT a function of a nonindustrial marketplace?
    the display of wealth for social prestige.
  34. Which of the following institutions is similar to a nonindustrial marketplace?
    a flea market
  35. The history of business ventures such as a Western-style farming operations in third-world countries suggests that:
    such projects often deprive much of the population of their means of livelihood.
  36. From a cross-cultural standpoint, all of the following statements about marriage are true:
    • socially sanctioned
    • includes rights of sexual access
    • makes the wife eligible to bear children


    (NOT a contract between one man and one woman)
  37. Although the incest taboo is:
    found in some form in all societies, anthropologists do not have completely satisfactory explanations for its occurrence.
  38. One probable explanation for the practice of exogamy is that it:
    helps to cement alliances between groups.
  39. The two most common forms of marriage in the world today are:
    polygyny and monogamy.
  40. Polyandry is a marriage custom in which a:
    wife has more than one husband.
  41. The marriage custom of levirate is best described as a:
    widow marrying her dead husband's brother.
  42. The manner by which North Americans select their mates differs significantly from mate selection practices in traditional societies, in that North Americans:
    select their own mates, rather than allowing their families to make such decisions.
  43. The purpose of bride price is to:
    repay the bride's family for the economic loss of their daughter.
  44. ayment of a woman's inheritance to the husband at the time of marriage is called the:
    dowry.
  45. What statement about divorce is TRUE?
    Divorce in non-Western societies is a matter of great concern to the couple's families.
  46. One of the basic functions of the family is to:
    nurture children.
  47. The basic residential unit that provides for functions such as production, consumption, inheritance and shelter is termed the:
    household.
  48. The nuclear family is typically found in:
    the United States and Canada.
  49. An economic environment in which the elderly become a burden rather than an asset favors development of:
    nuclear families.
  50. One explanation for the existence of extended families in many cultures is that:
    the need for a large labor pool and cooperation in economic activities keeps family members together.
  51. The residence pattern in which a woman leaves her family after marriage to live with the family in which her husband grew up is the:
    patrilocal residence pattern.
  52. A distinct problem of nuclear families in Western industrialized societies such as the United States is:
    isolation of spouses or single parents from the support of other relatives in dealing with family responsibilities.
  53. Kinship is a term most precisely used to refer to:
    relatives.
  54. To be described as a descent group, the group must have:
    an ancestor.
  55. One important function of descent groups in many nonindustrial societies is:
    providing security and services for its members.
  56. A descent group that is a corporate group:
    is a long-lasting organization that survives changes in membership
  57. A descent group that traces its ancestors exclusively through the male or female line is called:
    a unilineal group.
  58. In patrilineal descent groups:
    group membership is determined through the male line.
  59. In matrilineal societies
    unsatisfactory marriages are more easily ended than in patrilineal societies.
  60. A descent system in which the matrilineal line confers some rights and the patrilineal line confers others is termed:
    double descent.
  61. The term for a group that allows membership to anyone who can trace descent through either the father's or mother's line to an ancestor is:
    ambilineal descent.
  62. A common feature of lineages is that marriage:
    with someone from another lineage is usually required.
  63. In clans, all members belong to a:
    noncorporate descent group and claim descent from a common ancestor.
  64. In a society with moieties, the number of moieties is:
    two.
  65. In a bilateral kinship system, the individual from whom relationships to a large number of relatives are traced is called:
    ego.
  66. A kindred ends when:
    ego dies.
  67. In kinship diagrams, the symbol triangle indicates:
    a male.
  68. The principal purpose of kinship terminology systems is to:
    indicate positions occupied by persons in a society.
  69. The kinship terminology system used by Anglo-Americans is the:
    Eskimo system.
  70. In the Eskimo system of kinship terminology:
    no distinction is made between maternal and paternal sisters and brothers or their children.
  71. In bilateral kinship, an individual is:
    affiliated with a large number of relatives of both parents.
  72. In a bilateral kinship system, descent is traced through:
    four grandparents.
  73. Bilateral kinship is typical of societies in which:
    nuclear families predominate.
  74. Unilineal descent is commonly found in:
    agricultural and horticultural societies.
  75. One characteristic of many societies that organize relationships according to bilateral kinship is:
    mobility.
  76. A kindred includes:
    all near relatives of a living person.
  77. One function performed by kindreds is to:
    render assistance when requested.

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