Anthropology Exam 2 Review
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Anthropology Exam 2 Review
college anthropology class Northwestern Michigan College
The way in which a society meets its need for subsistence is determined by a society's:
The attitudes, beliefs, labor patterns and other factors that help determine how a society will subsist are called its:
The concept of adaptation is best described as:
the invention of new tools or modifying materials for new uses.
An example of maladaptation is provided by:
presence of sickle-cell anemia in non-malaria regions.
A culture area can best be described as a:
geographic region in which several cultures follow a similar life pattern.
The food-foraging subsistence pattern:
involved peoples from very early human societies to abut 10,000 years ago.
The food-sharing practices of food-foraging societies are:
Features of social organization associated with food-foraging cultures include:
sexual division of labor, regular sharing of food, importance of the camp as a semipermanent center of social activity.
According to the textbook and video program, sexual division of labor in food-foraging societies probably arose in part from:
biological differences between men and women.
In a food-foraging culture, women generally:
provide the larger share of the diet from their gathering activities.
The term egalitarian implies:
What is NOT an egalitarian aspect of food-foraging cultures?
Women share the same tasks and equal responsibilities with men.
Two words that best describe pastoralist cultures are:
nomadic and herders.
The most significant result of the change from food foraging to food production was that:
the nature of human society began to undergo significant change.
It is believed that the transition from food foraging to food production began:
9,000 to 11,000 years ago.
The horticultural pattern of subsistence is characterized by all of the following features:
individual garden plots
use of hand tools
little or no surplus food production
(NOT irrigation canals)
Horticultural cultivation of crops usually results in:
adequate food supplies but little surplus.
Slash-and-burn horticulture is practiced by the:
Maya of the Yucatan.
Maize, beans, squash and potatoes are typically grown in the:
dry areas in the Americas.
The development through intensive agriculture that made possible the rise of nonindustrial cities was:
surplus food production.
A stratified society, in which people were ranked according to their work or their family, first appeared in:
The governmental structure of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan is best described as:
a huge bureaucracy managing social order, taxation, and storehouses.
In addition to production, the essential parts of an economic system are:
distribution and consumption.
To produce goods, a nonindustrial society needs:
labor, technology and raw materials.
In the division of labor by age found in nonindustrial societies:
both children and the elderly are likely to have important roles.
The basis for sexual division of labor in traditional societies is related to:
In sexually segregated societies:
a person of one sex would seldom perform a task normally done by the other.
The technology of a nonindustrial society is reflected in part in its:
tools and artifacts.
An example of technology typical of a horticultural society is the:
A system of reciprocity where neither the value of what is given is calculated nor the time of repayment specified is called:
The conditions essential for the establishment of a system of resistribution are:
a central administration and a surplus.
The 'Big Man' feast is considered a leveling mechanism because it:
tends to distribute goods so that no one retains more than anyone else
NOT a function of a nonindustrial marketplace?
the display of wealth for social prestige.
Which of the following institutions is similar to a nonindustrial marketplace?
a flea market
The history of business ventures such as a Western-style farming operations in third-world countries suggests that:
such projects often deprive much of the population of their means of livelihood.
From a cross-cultural standpoint, all of the following statements about marriage are true:
includes rights of sexual access
makes the wife eligible to bear children
(NOT a contract between one man and one woman)
Although the incest taboo is:
found in some form in all societies, anthropologists do not have completely satisfactory explanations for its occurrence.
One probable explanation for the practice of exogamy is that it:
helps to cement alliances between groups.
The two most common forms of marriage in the world today are:
polygyny and monogamy.
Polyandry is a marriage custom in which a:
wife has more than one husband.
The marriage custom of levirate is best described as a:
widow marrying her dead husband's brother.
The manner by which North Americans select their mates differs significantly from mate selection practices in traditional societies, in that North Americans:
select their own mates, rather than allowing their families to make such decisions.
The purpose of bride price is to:
repay the bride's family for the economic loss of their daughter.
ayment of a woman's inheritance to the husband at the time of marriage is called the:
What statement about divorce is TRUE?
Divorce in non-Western societies is a matter of great concern to the couple's families.
One of the basic functions of the family is to:
The basic residential unit that provides for functions such as production, consumption, inheritance and shelter is termed the:
The nuclear family is typically found in:
the United States and Canada.
An economic environment in which the elderly become a burden rather than an asset favors development of:
One explanation for the existence of extended families in many cultures is that:
the need for a large labor pool and cooperation in economic activities keeps family members together.
The residence pattern in which a woman leaves her family after marriage to live with the family in which her husband grew up is the:
patrilocal residence pattern.
A distinct problem of nuclear families in Western industrialized societies such as the United States is:
isolation of spouses or single parents from the support of other relatives in dealing with family responsibilities.
Kinship is a term most precisely used to refer to:
To be described as a descent group, the group must have:
One important function of descent groups in many nonindustrial societies is:
providing security and services for its members.
A descent group that is a corporate group:
is a long-lasting organization that survives changes in membership
A descent group that traces its ancestors exclusively through the male or female line is called:
a unilineal group.
In patrilineal descent groups:
group membership is determined through the male line.
In matrilineal societies
unsatisfactory marriages are more easily ended than in patrilineal societies.
A descent system in which the matrilineal line confers some rights and the patrilineal line confers others is termed:
The term for a group that allows membership to anyone who can trace descent through either the father's or mother's line to an ancestor is:
A common feature of lineages is that marriage:
with someone from another lineage is usually required.
In clans, all members belong to a:
noncorporate descent group and claim descent from a common ancestor.
In a society with moieties, the number of moieties is:
In a bilateral kinship system, the individual from whom relationships to a large number of relatives are traced is called:
A kindred ends when:
In kinship diagrams, the symbol triangle indicates:
The principal purpose of kinship terminology systems is to:
indicate positions occupied by persons in a society.
The kinship terminology system used by Anglo-Americans is the:
In the Eskimo system of kinship terminology:
no distinction is made between maternal and paternal sisters and brothers or their children.
In bilateral kinship, an individual is:
affiliated with a large number of relatives of both parents.
In a bilateral kinship system, descent is traced through:
Bilateral kinship is typical of societies in which:
nuclear families predominate.
Unilineal descent is commonly found in:
agricultural and horticultural societies.
One characteristic of many societies that organize relationships according to bilateral kinship is:
A kindred includes:
all near relatives of a living person.
One function performed by kindreds is to:
render assistance when requested.