Anthropology Vocabulary 2

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AsherWolfe
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266602
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Anthropology Vocabulary 2
Updated:
2014-10-10 14:52:04
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anthropology NMC
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college anthropology class Northwestern Michigan College
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  1. The best definition of the study of the interaction of specific human cultures with their environment is:
    cultural ecology
  2. The term which best describes a member of a society in which animal husbandry is viewed as the ideal way of making a living and in which movement of all or part of the society is considered a normal and natural way of life is:
    pastoralist
  3. The term which best describes something which comprises the physical environment and the organisms living within it is:
    ecosystem
  4. The term which best describes in cultural evolution, the development of similar adaptations to similar environmental conditions by peoples of quite different cultural backgrounds:
    convergent evolution
  5. The term which best describes the number of people who can be supported by the available resources at a given level of technology:
    carrying capacity
  6. The term which best describes societies in which family groups are equal in status and have equal access to resources:
    egalitarian
  7. The term which best describes the features of a culture that play a part in the society's way of making a living:
    culture core
  8. The term which best describes a group's means for obtaining and allocating resources to care for the survival needs of its members:
    subsistence pattern
  9. The term which best describes a two-way adjustment of those changes made by an organism on its environment and those induced by the environment on the organism:
    adaptation
  10. The term which best describes a geographic region in which a number of different societies follow similar patterns of life:
    culture area
  11. What term best describes areas where such crops as manioc are produced?
    New World tropical wetlands.
  12. Which term best describes subsistence food production using simple hand tools?
    horticulture
  13. Which term best describes a variety of full-time occupations first appearing in nonindustrial cities?
    specialization of labor
  14. What term best describes areas where such crops as maize, beans and squash are produced?
    New World dry lands.
  15. What term best describes a practice which is also known as swidden farming?
    slash-and-burn horticulture.
  16. What term best describes communities made possible from intensive agriculture?
    nonindustrial cities
  17. What term best describes a practice which often employs irrigation, fertilizers and plows to produce a surplus?
    intensive agriculture.
  18. What term best describes a practice which first became necessary in horticultural communities?
    land ownership
  19. Which term best describes a system which requires production of a surplus and the existence of a centralized government:
    redistribution
  20. What term best describes artifacts used in the production of goods?
    tools
  21. Which term best describes the display of wealth to gain prestige?
    conspicuous consumption
  22. Which term best describes the overall process by which goods are produced, distributed and consumed in a society?
    economic system
  23. Which term best describes the exchange of goods and services of about equal value?
    reciprocity
  24. Which term best describes an exchange in which the giving and the  receiving are specific as to the value of the goods and the time of their delivery?
    balanced reciprocity
  25. Which term best describes one type of division of labor common in more complex societies?
    craft specialization
  26. Which term best describes an exchange in which neither the value of what was given is calculated nor the time of repayment specified?
    generalized reciprocity
  27. Which term best describes the exchange of goods between two groups, each of which calculates relative value?
    barter
  28. Which term best describes social obligations that function so that no individual accumulates more wealth than another in a society?
    leveling mechanism
  29. Which term best describes an exchange in which the giver tries to get the better of the exchange?
    negative reciprocity.
  30. Which term best describes the cargo position with the largest number of 'openings' each year?
    mayordomo
  31. Which term best describes a system which discourages the accumulation of wealth?
    leveling mechanism
  32. Which term best describes slash-and-burn corn planting?
    milpa
  33. What social rule forbids sexual relationships between specified relatives?
    incest taboo
  34. Which term best defines marriage within a certain group or category?
    endogamy
  35. Which term best defines the custom that a widow marries a brother of her dead husband?
    levirate
  36. Which term best defines marriage outside the group?
    exogamy
  37. Which term best defines a custom which includes rights of sexual access and eligibility to bear children?
    marriage
  38. Which term best defines a marriage form in which the woman takes more than one husband at the same time?
    polyandry
  39. Which term best defines a marriage form in which the man takes more than one wife at the same time?
    polygyny
  40. Which term best defines people who are related by marriage?
    affinal kin
  41. Which term best defines an obligation undertaken by a husband to the bride's family?
    bride service
  42. What term best defines the common residence pattern in North America?
    neolocal residence
  43. Which term best describes family formed on the basis of marital ties?
    conjugal family
  44. Which term best describes taking care of the young; an important function of the family?
    nurturance
  45. Which term best describes a married couple living in a locality associated with the husband's father's relatives?
    patrilocal residence
  46. Which term best describes a family unit composed of husband, wife and dependent children?
    nuclear family
  47. Which term best describes a collection of nuclear families related by ties of blood?
    extended family
  48. Which term best describes a unilineal descent group composed of at least two clans that supposedly share a common ancestry?
    phratry
  49. Which term best describes each group that results from division of a society into two parts on the basis of descent?
    moiety
  50. Which term best describes descent than can be traced through either parent for purposes of group membership?
    ambilineal descent
  51. Which term best describes a group claiming relationship to a common ancestor for purposes of group membership, although relationship cannot actually be traced?
    clan
  52. Which term best defines relationships by birth?
    consanguineal
  53. Which term best describes descent traced through each parent, each for separate purposes?
    double descent
  54. Which term best describes a corporate descent group whose members can trace their links to a common ancestor?
    lineage
  55. Which term best describes the belief that people are related to animals, plants, or natural objects because of their descent from common ancestral spirits?
    totemism
  56. Which term best describes descent through females?
    matrilineal
  57. Which term best describes a relationship defined by marriage?
    affinal relationship
  58. Which term best describes descent traced through males?
    patrilineal
  59. Which term best describes something which often identifies the comparative importance of various relatives to an individual?
    kinship terminology
  60. Which term best defines the individual at the center of a kindred?
    ego
  61. Which term best describes a system in which an individual feels related equally to all near relatives of both parents?
    bilateral kinship
  62. Which term best describes a system in which cross cousins on the mother's side are merged with the mother's generation?
    Omaha kinship terminology system
  63. Which term best describes the most precise of kinship terminology systems?
    Sudanese kinship terminology system
  64. Which symbol is used to identify a male in a kinship diagram?
    triangle
  65. Which term best describes a relatively limited group of people related to one living individual through both parents?
    kindred
  66. Which term describes brothers and sisters?
    siblings
  67. Which term best describes a system used in Anglo-American and Inuit societies?
    Eskimo kinship terminology system

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