Gaskets and o-rings are two kinds of _______ seals.
O-rings require a(n)_________ to create a seal.
__________ compensate for temperature fluctuations in a control loop.
__________ achieve a tight seal by forcing the flared edge of the tubing up against the tapered end of the fitting body.
______ tubing is corrosion-resistant and suitable for high-temperature, high-pressure applications.
Leak detector fluid is essential when trying to locate ____ leaks in instrument connections.
Metals that are to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned _______ flux is applied.
Flux and discoloration may be removed from the fitting after a joint has been made using____.
The preferred cutting tools for stainless steel tubing are ___
_____ are food tools for removing dirt, oil and other residue from fittings and tubing before solder is applied.
The materials of which mechanical seals are made must be ____ with the process materials of the applications in which they are used.
Bends require ______ tubing than square corners.
The wall thickness of tubing is determined by its ______.
inside and outside diameters
________ tubing may be found as a single tube or as a bundle of single tubes within a protective sheath.
Flux residue can sause stainless steel tubing to ______.
Applications in which pneumatic signals must be carried between instruments commonly use ___ and___
stainless steel tubing
Every electrical connection should be tested for ___ after any installation or repair work is done.
it is essential to _________ before beginning any work on a circuit in the field.
verify the circuit de-energized
With coaxial cable connectors, the cable shield is usually inserted through a hole in the _______.
Check _________ terminal connections from the point at which the lost signal symptom appears.
The voltage rating of a wire is determined by the ____ of the conductor.
According to ohm's law, if voltage remains constant and resistance decreases, current will _____.
a poor solder joint will be ___
metal bubbling up form the access hole in a coaxial cable connector indicates that the joint is ____.
____ is used to protect instrument signals passing through lines of flux from high-voltage equipment form being distorted or lost.
Grounding a shielded cable at ____ can create a ground loop.
________ tests should be done on every electrical connection after any installation or repair work is done.
when verifying that a circuit is de-energized, it is important to test the operation of the multimeter ____ testing the circuit.
before and after
when installing a coaxial calbe connector, the _____ is usually inserted through a hole in the grounding tab
Check sequential terminal connections from the point at which the lost signal symptom appears for ____
_______ is the difference between the actual value of the measured variable and the value of the variable indicated by the instrumentation.
factors that should always be considered when analyzing an instrument's accuracy rating are _____ and ________.
Errors that can be observed on a calibration curve or input/output graph include ______, ___,___, and ____.
characteristics that affect an instrument's accuracy in terms of the manufacutrer's accuracy rating include dead band, linearity, ______ and ______.
an instrument is ___ if it is capable of consistently providing repeatable values for a given input.
position errors may be caused by _____.
calibrating in position different from installation position
mechanical deformation of instrument
in order to permit the observation of linearity apart from the phenomena of hysteresis and dead band, it is necessary to plot an ___ curve.
______ is the closeness of agreement among several consecutive measurements of an instrument's output values.
errors in interpretation may be caused by __.
instrument errors that can usually be corrected during calibration include _______.
None of the above. answers to choose from are, non-linearity/hysteresis/dead band.
errors in __________ may be caused by misreading the value of scale subdivisions or incorrectly estimating readings in which pointer s located between divisions or subdivisions.
on an input/output graph, a zero shift line ____.
all of the above, may be above the ideal line/may be below the ideal line/will not intersect the ideal line.
linearity is expressed as a
percent of output
with _____, the response of the sensing element does not catch up to the input signal until the upper or lower ranges of the instrument are approached.
the smallest change in a measured variable to which an instrument will respond is a characteristic known as
on an input/output graph, ____ is represented as a straight line that is at a different angle than the ideal line.
with _______, all of the output readings are either consistently high or consistently low throughout the entire range.
____ is the ratio of the maximum to minimum values of a measured variable that an instrument can measure within stated accuracy to the minimum value of the measured variable that it can measure with stated accuracy.
an instrument's repeatablility is expressed as
percentage of output span
_______ is the ratio of the instrument's maximum full scale range to its minimum full scale range.
which of the following instrument errors can generally be adjusted.
which of these occurrences normally requires that an instrument should be re-calibrated?
what is the signal range of an analog electronic pressure transmitter?
which of the following is the first step in a good calibration procedure?
determination of signal range
the proper formula used to determine the accuracy of a temperature tranmitter is:
accuracy = deviation/signal span * 100
gain is a function of
in looking for indications of hysteresis, it is essential to
take upscale and downscale readings
the accurate measurement and comparison of an instrument's inputs and outputs to a known standard is a definition of
the most accurate standards are those with the _____ tolerances.
________ standards use physical properties of matter and physical laws to provide a standard for comparison.
calibration certification facilities use standards from _______ to calibrate their standards.
manometers can indicate pressure in
inches of water
inches of mercury
in order to obtain an measurement from a u-tube manometer, it is necessary to read
to ensure accurate calibrations, gloves should be worn when handling the ____ used with dead weight testers
when selecting piston/cylinder assemblies, it is good practice to choose the ____ available tester range that includes the pressure range of the instrument to be calibrated.
the operating fluid in pneumatic testers is a
in a pneumatic dead weight tester, the pressure balance point is achieved by forces acting on a ______ assembly.
ball and nozzle
the least accurate standard are those with the _____ tolerances.
_______ standards are extremely precise instruments used for the calibration of plant instruments and systems.
calibration certification facilities provide standards for _________ to use to calibrate their standards.
in a u-tube manometer, the reference level is the term used to describe the level apparent when pressure is ______.
not being applied.
the _______ is the curve of the fill fluid level.
a (n) __________ manometer is designed to provide greater accuracy from measuring small pressure changes.
____ are sets consisting of precision parts that are not interchangeable with components in other sets.
cylinders and weight systems
flushing the connection before connecting the test instrument to be calibrated to a hydraulic dead weight testers instrument connection port ensures that there are no _________ in the system.
the operating fluid in hydraulic testers is a ____
in a hydraulic dead weight tester, the pressure balance point is achieved by forces acting on a ____ assembly
piston and cylinder
what features may be found on test gauges that differ from those found on general-purpose pressure gauges?
_________ is an optical illusion created by the distance between the gauge face and the pointer, or indicator, and the angle at which the reading is viewed
the eyes of the viewer reading a gauge should be at a ____ angle to the scale in order to ensure accurate readings.
after a test gauge has been subjected to shock, it can be returned to service only after it has been
in addition to functioning as primary calibration standards, deadweight testers can also be used as ______ for high pressure instrument calibrations.
input pressure sources
analog-display calibrators allow ______ comparison of an instruments input and output signals under test conditions.
because most pneumatic calibrators are _________, they can be used for field checks and calibration of instruments in their normal operating locations.
owing to the hazardous or toxic process fluids to which they may be exposed, all instruments should be _____ and __ before being calibrated.
during a calibration, the pressure sensor must be _________ after each pressure value has been applied.
while setting up the unit for a calibration, the regulators on a calibrator should be checked to determine that they are at their ____ setting.
mirrored scales and multiple scales are more likely to be found on ___ gauges
parallax is a(n) _______ created by the distance between the gauge face and the pointer, or indicator, and the angle at which the reading is viewed.
the eyes of the viewer reading the gauge should be at a right angle to the _____ in order to ensure accurate readings.
after a test gauge has been subjected to shock, it cannot be returned to service until it has been ____
deadweight testers can be used as _____ for high pressure instrument calibrations, in addition to functioning as primary calibration standards.
input pressure sources
digital display calibrators allow ______ comparison of an instrument's input and output signals under test conditions.
because most digital-display pneumatic calibrators are ____, they can be used for field checks and calibration of instruments in their normal operating locations.
all instruments should be ____ and ____ before being calibrated, due to the hazardous or toxic process fluids to which they may be exposed.
during a calibration, the _____ must be vented after each pressure value has been applied.
while setting up the unit for a calibration, the ____ must be connected to the calibrator and to the instrument being calibrated.
instruments are calibrated to ensure that their __ accurately represents the input.
instruments should be calibrated in the following situations:
all of the above. transferring the instrument to a new control loop/following the repair to the instrument/ prior to installation.
information on the recommended setup for a calibration can usually be found in
to prevent erroneous indications, instrument ______ should be checked to ensure that they are tight and leak free.
if the instrument under test is rated for an accuracy of plus or minus 1, the output standard selected for a calibration should ideally have a accuracy of plus or minus __.
the test points selected for calibration should include values (at or within) _______ percent of the instruments upper and lower range values.
during an upscale check, test points should be approached form _______ .
it is unlikely that some ______ errors will be discerned in a three-point calibration check.
it is important to allow the ____ value to stabilize before recording the data
milliammeters are usually connected in ____with the instrument under test when they are used as output standards.
instruments should be calibrated in the following situations:
all of the above. after changing the position in which it is mounted/prior to repair of the instrument/after determining that product does not meet specifications
ideally, the output standard selected for a calibration should be plus or minus 0.1, if the instrument under test is rated for an accuracy of plus of minus. ____.
during a downscale check, test points should be approached from ____
if zero shift and span errors are revealed during a series of calibration cycles, ____ is usually corrected first
___ defines the highest and lowest values of the measured variable that an instrument is designed to measure, receive, or transmit.
___ is the algebraic difference between and the upper and lower values of an instruments range.
the test points selected for calibration should include values at or within ten percent of the upper and lower ____ values
after any required adjustments have been made, another _____ should be performed to verify the results of the adjustments.
the following information can usually be located in the manufacturers instructions accompanying a measuring or indicating instrument.
all of the above. recommended setups/test conditions/adjustment points for zero, span, and linearity
a calibration _____ simulates the process variables to be measured by the instrument under test.