Psych: Chapter 16 Social Psychology

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Psych: Chapter 16 Social Psychology
2014-06-14 15:43:33
chapter 16 markingperiodthree barbagallo jun social psych psychology
Junior Psychology
some of these definitions are in another card set called Crash Vocabulary
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  1. Learned predisposition to respond cognitively, effectively, and behaviorally to a particular object
  2. The principles people follow in making judgements about the causes of events, others' behavior, and their own behavior
  3. An explanation for the cause of behaviors and events
  4. A feeling of discomfort caused by a discrepancy between an attitude and a behavior or between two competing attitudes
    Cognitive Dissonance
  5. Cognitive Dissonance is most prevalent in what kinds of Cultures?
    Individualistic Cultures
  6. Prejudice is an...
  7. Discrimination is a...
    Behavior (they're actually doing something)
  8. In Zimbardo's prison experiment, the majority of participants with the role of prisoner became...
  9. Based on Latane and Darley's theory Kity Genovese might have survived if she had been attacked in the presence of...
    Only one neighbor who knew no one else was around
  10. Why do people engage in the Fundamental Attribution Error?
    It is easier to blame people than "things"
  11. Misjudging the causes of others' behavior as due to internal (dispositional) causes rather than external (situational) ones
    Fundamental Attribution Error
  12. A situation in which a group of people act to obtain short-term individual gains, which in the long run leads to a loss for the group as a whole
    Social Trap
  13. Viewing members of the ingroup more positively than members of an outgroup
    (we tend to like those who like us)
    Ingroup Favoritism
  14. Judging members of an outgroup as more alike and less diverse than members of the ingroup
    Outgroup Homogeneity Effect
  15. A learned, generally negative, attitude toward members of a group; it includes thoughts (stereotypes), feelings and behavioral tendencies
  16. Blocking of a desired goal (frustration) creates anger that may lead to aggression
    Frustration-Aggression Principle
  17. Taking credit for our successes and externalizing our failures
    Self-serving Bias
  18. People who conform to, or go along with, because we like and admire them and want to be like them
    Reference Groups
  19. The behavioral component of prejudice
  20. The three key factors in Attraction:
    • Physical Attractiveness
    • Proximity
    • Similiarity
  21. The cognitive component of prejudice
  22. A set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that is generalized to all group members
  23. Any behavior intended to harm someone
  24. The tendency of people in a group to exert less effort when pooling efforts toward a common goal
    (working in a group and only some people do the work)
    Social Loafing
  25. When group members work harder towards a common goal
    Social Facilitation
  26. Changing behavior because of real or imagined group pressure
    Trying to fit in or not stick out
  27. Makes those work harder, not by the conditions, but by letting the worker think they're being observed or watched.
    Hawthorne Effect/Observer Bias
  28. Reduced self-consciousness, inhibition, and personal responsibility that sometimes occurs in a group, particularly when the members feel anonymous
  29. The dilution (or diffusion) of personal responsibility for acting by spreading it among all other group members
    Diffusion of Responsibility
  30. Conforming because of need information and direction
    Informational Social Influence
  31. Cultural rule of behavior prescribing what is acceptable in a given situation
  32. Conforming to group pressure out of a need for approval and acceptance
    Normative Social Influence
  33. Following direct commands, usually from an authority figure
  34. Negative behaviors directed at members of a group
  35. Key factor in attraction involving geographic, residential, and other forms of physical closeness
  36. Strong and lasting attraction characterized by trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship
    Companionate Love
  37. Focusing on the most noticeable factors when explaining the causes of behavior
    Saliency Bias
  38. Helping that’s motivated by anticipated gain
    Egotistic Model
  39. Faulty decision making that occurs when a highly cohesive group strives for agreement and avoids inconsistent information
    Group Think
  40. Group’s movement toward either riskier or more conservative behavior, depending on the members’ initial dominant tendency
    Group Polarization
  41. Attraction based on sharing similar needs
    Need Compatibility
  42. Intense feeling of attraction to another within an erotic context and with future expectations
    Romantic Love
  43. Actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper
  44. 3 Major Components to all Attitudes
    • Cognitive
    • Affective
    • Behavioral
  45. Evidence suggests that bystanders failed to intervene in the Kitty Genovese murder because there was...
    Diffusion of Responsibility
  46. Attraction to others based on opposite traits
    Need Complementary
  47. A person acts a certain way based in response to situational demands and their environment
    Situational Attribution
  48. If we are shown things once we are more likely to enjoy it the second time
    Mere Exposure Effect
  49. 3 elements that Rubin thought were important in Loving
    • Caring
    • Attachment
    • Intimacy
  50. 3 elements Rubin thought were important in Liking
    • Admiration
    • Respect
    • Favorable Evaluation
  51. Illusions are the foundations of...
    Romantic Love
  52. Asch studied
  53. Roles are based on...
    Social Expectations
  54. When we first agree to a small request we are more than likely to agree to a larger request
    Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
  55. Start off with a huge request first, then back down to a smaller request which is usually granted
    Door-in-the-Face Phenomenon
  56. What are the four conformity strengtheners?
    • 1. Person is made to feel incompetent or insecure
    • 2. others observe one's behavior
    • 3. group is unanimous
    • 4. 3+ people in group