Carpentry 1 - Solid Wood Products & Joinery
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Moisture and nutrients are transported upward from the roots to the branches and leaves where food is manufactured though the ________.
A thin layer just inside the inner bark where all the new growth occurs, is called the _____.
One annual ring is composed of one layer of light _______ and one layer of dark ________.
As the tree grows and new layers of wood are added, the one closest to the center of the tree undergoes a change. The wood cells in the ____ cease to conduct sap and become darker in color from the infiltration of gum, resin, oils and tannin.
Wood cells are very fine and about the same diameter as a human hair. The walls of the tubes are largely made of ______. These tubes or cells are cemented together with a material called ______.
Cells that are horizontal and radiate out from the pith area are called _______.
Hardwoods are cut from ______ trees that lose their leaves in the fall.
Softwoods are cut from ______ trees.
coniferous (needle bearing evergreen trees)
An example of a soft hardwood is ______.
Pine is an example of a _______.
A hardwood, used for tool handles because of its strength and durability is ______.
A softwood primarily used for making shingles is _______.
western red cedar
A sawing method used to produce mostly edge grain board is called _______.
True or false: Quarter sawn lumber is less likely to warp than flat sawn lumber.
Does the strength of wood increase or decrease as moisture content decreases?
The moisture content for framing lumber should be between ____ % and ____%.
The term ______ _____ ______ refers to when the cell cavities are free from moisture but the cell walls are saturated with moisture.
Fibre saturation point
Shrinkage along the annual rings is about _____ times as many as the shrinkage across the annual rings.
What does the abbreviation: S-DRY on a grade stamp mean?
lumber that has been dried to a moisture content NOT exceeding 19 percent when it is surfaced.
What is a circular crack or separation of the grain surrounding the pith called?
What is the bark that remains on the edge of lumbar?
Where is a spike knot usually found?
On vertical grain lumber
What is lumber called when it has saw cuts still visible on a dressed surface?
A bend in the length of wood that appears to a heavily loaded plank on a scaffold is called _____.
A defect that causes the cross-section shape of a piece of wood to become out of square because of uneven shrinkage is called ______.
What is the best grade of hard wood called?
What does the abbreviation S4S on hardwood mean?
Surfaced on 4 sides
What is a section of wood that is 140mm thick and 140 mm wide called?
How thick is eight quarter stock hardwood?
How many board feet is a 2" x 8" lumber that is 12 feet long?
96 board feet
What is a moulding used to protect wall corners from abuse?
What is a moulding that is installed horizontally along the wall to protect it from damage from the backs of furniture?
What depth are Rabbet joints usually cut to?
2/3 thickness of the material
What is a joint that utilizes a narrow strip of plywood or hardboard recessed into the edges or ends?
What is a joint that has almost replaced the use of dadoes?
What is a joint used for drawers that is considered a sign of the best quality craftsmanship?
What is a joint that has been traditionally used on furniture frames?
Blind mortise and tenon joint
What is a joint commonly used for baseboards where one piece is shaped to fit the profile of the other piece?
What are the 5 main parts of a tree?
- 1. bark
- 2. cambium layer
- 3. sapwood
- 4. heartwood
- 5. pith
What are the 3 classifications of how lumber surfaces are finished?
- 1. rough
- 2. surfaced (planed)
- 3. worked (shaped into molding)
How long may the drying period of wood take?
3 months to more than a year
Explain the 3 steps of how kiln drying works.
- 1. Steam on low heat
- 2. Reduce humidity
- 3. Raise temperature in kiln
What can happen if kiln drying is done too fast?
Wood splits - cause serious checking
How does a moisture metre work?
Measuring the electrical resistance of an electrical current flow through the wood.
How does wood shrink?
- Shrinks very little along its length.
- Shrinkage across the face is very noticeable (width)
- Shrinks in thickness, but less with quarter sawn
When should wood be pressure treated?
When moisture content will remain high (e.g. porches/deck)
What should the moisture content be for interior finishing?
What does MC 15 mean?
Dried to a moisture content of 15% or less when it is surfaced
What does S-GRN mean?
- Surfaced or machined when moisture content is 19% or higher (green)
- --Machined larger than actual required size to allow for shrinkage
What is the 3 characteristics that effect the grading of lumber?
- 1. Natural flaws (knot, pitch, grain)
- 2. Manufacturing flaws (trimming, knife burns, chipping)
- 3. Seasoning flaws caused by drying (splits, checks, cupping, twisting)
What is shake?
Lengthwise separation of the wood along the annual rings that develops in the standing tree
What are the 3 kinds of knots?
What causes dog holes?
Sharp handling tools that are either used by loggers or log-handlers at the mill.
What is a crook?
A deviation from straight in the edge from end to end.
What does FAS grade stand for?
First and Seconds -- usually 80-90% clear on the poorer of the 2 faces
What are the 3 grades of hardwoods?
- 1. FAS
- 2. Select
- 3. No. 1 common
- (in order of best to worst)
How is a board classified?
Any construction lumber under 1 1/2 inches thick.
How is dimension lumber classified?
- 1 1/2" to 4 1/2" thick
- 1 1/2" width
What is a timber classified as?
4 1/2" x 4 1/2" or more
What does nominal size mean?
Rough cut size, before surfacing
What does MBF stand for?
Thousand board feet
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