Chapter 17 - The Urinary System

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teriann
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266711
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Chapter 17 - The Urinary System
Updated:
2014-03-17 11:37:51
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urinary
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urinary system
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  1. The Urinary System - filtration and fluid balance
    • * kidneys
    • * ureters
    • * bladder
    • * sphincter
    • * urethra
  2. Excrete:
    to remove waste products from the body
  3. Urinary calculus:
    kidney stone; solid substance formed in the kidneys
  4. Micturation:
    the act of urinating
  5. To Void:
    to urinate
  6. Functions of the Urinary System:
    • - Maintains electrolyte balance
    • - filters blood and removes waste
    • - stimulates red blood cell production
    • - regulates water balance and blood pressure
    • - activates vitamin D
    • -
  7. Anatomy of the Kidneys"
    • Blood vessels
    • Renal Cortex
    • Renal Medulla
    • Renal Pelvis
  8. Renal Nephrons

    * like the alveoli in the lungs*
    • Renal Corpuscle: filters
    • Renal Tubule: transports
    • Collecting Ducts
  9. The Ureters:
    • -made of smooth muscle
    • -10/12 inches long
    • -use peristaltic movement to transport urine from kidneys to bladder
  10. Urinary Bladder:
    • - hollow organ made of smooth muscle
    • - stores one liter of urine
    • - urethral sphincter controls the release of urine to the urethra
  11. Urethra:
    • - transports urine from bladder and expels from body
    • - female is 5 cm
    • - male is 20cm
  12. Urine Formation - Glomerular Filtration
    • 1) Blood enters the kidney via the renal artery
    • 2) Blood travels to the glomerulus via the afferent arterioles
    • 3) Glomerulus filters fluid and molecules from the blood
    • 4) The fluid, glomerular filtrate, flos into Bowman's capsule while blood remains in the glomerulus
  13. The Composition of Urine:
    • Color
    • Odor
    • PH
    • Transparency
    • Specific Gravity
    • Solutes
  14. Hormone Regulation of Urine Production:

    antidiuretic hormone
    Aldosterone
    Renin
    * Antidiuretic Hormone: by pituitary gland, regulates amount of urine produced

    * Aldosterone: by adrenal gland, regulates sodium and potassium, balances fluids and electrolytes, regulates blood pressure

    * Renin: by kidney, stimulates adrenal and aldosterone, released when sodium or blood volume is low, regulates blood pressure
  15. Dialysis - Hemodialysys & Peritoneal dialysis
    Dialysis is the mechanical filtration of the blood
  16. Hemodialysis:
    (most common)
    • Uses one of the following:
    • AV (arteriovenous) Fistula
    • AV shunt
    • Then, needle withdraws blood, filters, and clean blood is returned
    • * dialysis is generally 3 days per week for 3-5 hours
  17. Peritoneal Dialysis
    • * catheter is placed in abdomen, filling with solution
    • * waste is passed from blood into peritoneum
    • * dextrose draws extra water from body
    • * solution remains in abdomen 4-6 hours
    • * solution is drained with waste products
    • * performed 4x daily

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