Chapter 5 Key Terms

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brianklein
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266731
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Chapter 5 Key Terms
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2014-03-17 04:08:35
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abnormal psychology
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  1. the central nervous systems physiological and emotional response to a serious threat to ones well being
    fear
  2. the central nervous systems physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of threat or danger
    anxiety
  3. a disorder marked by persistent and excessive feelings of anxiety and worry about numerous events and activities
    generalized anxiety disorders
  4. the humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing accurately, and conveying genuineness
    client-centered therapy
  5. the inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people with various psychological problems, according to Albert Ellis
    basic irrational assumptions
  6. a cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis that helps clients identify and change the irrational assumptions and thinking that help cause their psychological disorder
    rational-emotive therapy
  7. a research design in which investigators determine how many and which relatives of a person with a disorder have the same disorder
    family pedigree study
  8. the most common group of antianxiety drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax
    benzodiazepines
  9. the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, whose low activity has been linked to generalized anxiety disorder
    GABA
  10. drugs that calm people at lower doses and help them to fall asleep at higher doses
    sedative-hypnotic drugs
  11. a treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations
    relaxation training
  12. a technique in which a client is given information about physiological reactions as they occur and learns to control the reactions voluntarily
    biofeedback
  13. a device that provides feedback about the level of muscular tension in the body
    electromyograph (EMG)
  14. a persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation
    phobia
  15. a severe and persistent fear of a specific object or situation (other than agoraphobia and social phobia)
    specific phobia
  16. a process of learning in which two events that repeatedly occur close together, in time become tied together in a persons mind and so produce the same response
    classical conditioning
  17. process of learning in which a person observes and then imitates others. also, a therapy approach based on the same principle
    modeling
  18. a phenomenon in which responses to one stimulus are also produced by similar stimuli
    stimulus generalization
  19. a pre-dispostion to develop certain fears
    preparedness
  20. behavioral treatment in which persons are exposed to the objects or situation they dread
    exposure treatments
  21. a behavioral treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread
    systematic desensitization
  22. a treatment for phobias in which clients are exposed repeatedly and intensively to a feared object and made to see that it is actually harmless
    flooding
  23. a severe a persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. also known as social anxiety disorder
    social phobia
  24. a therapy approach that helps people learn or improve social skills and assertiveness through role playing and rehearsing of desirable behaviors
    social skills training
  25. periodic, short bouts of panic that occurs suddenly, reach a peak within 10 minutes, and gradually pass
    panic attacks
  26. an anxiety disorder marked by recurrent and unpredictable panic attacks
    panic disorder
  27. an anxiety disorder in which a person is afraid to be in places or situations from which escape might be difficult (or embarrassing) or help unavailable if panic-like symptoms were to occur
    agoraphobia
  28. a neurotransmiter whose abnormal activity is linked to panic disorder and depression
    norepinephrine
  29. a small area of the brain that seems to be active in the regulation of emotions. many of its neurons use norepinephrine
    locus ceruleus
  30. a small, almond-shaped structure in the brain that processes emotional information
    amygdala
  31. a procedure used to produce panic in participants or clients by having them exercise vigorously or perform some other potentially panic inducing task in the presence of a researcher or therapist
    biological challenge test
  32. a tendency to focus on ones bodily sensations, assess them illogically, and interpret them as harmful
    anxiety sensitivity
  33. a persistent thought, idea, impulse, or image that is experiences repeatedly, feels intrusive, and causes anxiety
    obsession
  34. a repetitive and rigid behavior or mental act that a person feels driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety
    compulsion
  35. a disorder in which a person has recurrent and unwanted thoughts, a need to perform receptive and rigid actions, or both
    obsessive-compulsive disorder
  36. an ego defense mechanism in which people unconsciously isolate and disown undesirable and unwanted thoughts, experiencing them as foreign intrusions
    isolation
  37. an ego defense mechanism whereby a person unconsciously cancels out an unacceptable desire or act by performing another act
    undoing
  38. an ego defense mechanism whereby a person suppresses an unacceptable desire by taking on a life style that expresses the opposite desire
    reaction formation
  39. a behavioral treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder that exposes a client to anxiety-arousing thoughts or situations and then prevents the client from performing his or her compulsive acts. also called exposure and ritual prevention
    exposure and response prevention
  40. a persons attempt to eliminate unwanted thoughts by thinking or behaving in ways that put matters right internally, making up for the unacceptable thoughts
    neutralizing
  41. a neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to depression, ocd and eating disorders
    serotonin
  42. a region of the brain in which impulses involing excretion, sexuality, violence and other primitive activities normally arise
    orbitofronal cortex
  43. structures in the brain within the region known as the basal ganglia, that help convert sensory information into thoughts and actions
    caudate nuclei
  44. an approach to treating generalized and other anxiety disorders that teaches clients techniques for reducing and controlling stress
    stress management program

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