Sociology Chaper 2

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Sociology Chaper 2
2014-03-17 21:02:16
Sociology Chapter2
Sociology, Society: The Basics; Chapter 2: Culture
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  1. Culture is....
    • a way of life
    • shared by members of society
    • shapes how we act, think and feel
  2. Culture is a _____ trait.
    • human
    • although several species display a limited capacity for culture, only humans begins rely on culture for survival
  3. Culture is a product of _______.
  4. As the human brain evolved, culture replaced _______ instincts as our speices primary stragety for _____.
    • biological
    • survival
  5. Culture?
    the ways of thinking, the ways of acting and the material objects that together from a people's way of life.
  6. nonmaterial culture?
    the ideas created by members of a society
  7. material culture?
    the physical things created by members of a society
  8. society?
    people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture
  9. culture shock?
    personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
  10. symbol?
    anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
  11. language?
    a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
  12. cultural transmission?
    the process by which one generation passes culture to the next.
  13. Sapir-Whorf thesis?
    the idea that people see and understand the world through the culture lens of language
  14. values?
    culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
  15. beliefs?
    specific ideas that people hold to be true
  16. norms?
    rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
  17. mores?
    norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
  18. folkways?
    norms for routine or causal interaction
  19. technology?
    knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
  20. hunting and gathering?
    the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food
  21. horticulture?
    the use of hand tools to raise crops
  22. pastoralism?
    the domestication of animals
  23. agricutlure?
    large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources
  24. industry?
    the production of goods using advanced soruces of energy to drive large machinery
  25. postindustrialism?
    the production of information suing computer technology
  26. When do we experience culture shock?
    when we enter an unfamiliar culture and are not able to read meaning in our new surroundings
  27. When do you create culture shock for others?
    When we act in ways they do not understand.
  28. Culture relies on symbols in the form of.....
    • words
    • gestures
    • actions to express meaning
  29. How do people use langage?
    to transmit culture from one generation to the next
  30. Because every culture is different, each ______ has words or expression not found in any other language.
  31. values care abstract _______ of what ought to be
  32. values can sometimes _______ one another
  33. low-income countries have cultures that value ______.
  34. higher-income countries have culture that value __________ and __________.
    • individualism 
    • self expression
  35. _______ are specific statements that people who share a _______ hold to be true.
    • beliefs
    • culture
  36. ________, guide human behavior.
  37. Two types of Norms?
    • mores
    • folkways
  38. Examples of Mores?
    sexual taboos
  39. Examples of Folkways?
    greeting or dining etiquette
  40. _______ is shaped by ______. We understand technological development in terms of stages of _________.
    • culture
    • technology
    • sociocultural evolution
  41. Stages of Sociocultural Evolution?
    • hunting and gathering
    • horticulture and pastoralism 
    • agriculture
    • industry
    • postindustrial information technology
  42. high culture?
    cultural patterns that distinguish society's elite
  43. popular culture?
    cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
  44. subculture?
    cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
  45. multiculturalism?
    a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
  46. euro centrism?
    the dominance of European cultural patterns
  47. Afrocentrism?
    promoting African cultural patterns
  48. counterculture?
    cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
  49. cultural integration?
    close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
  50. cultural lag?
    the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system
  51. ethnocentrism?
    the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
  52. cultural relativism?
    the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
  53. We live in a ________.
    culturally diverse society
  54. This diversity is due to our country's __________.
    history of immigration
  55. Diversity reflect differences in social class that set off __________ from ____________.
    • high culture
    • popular culture
  56. _________ is based on difference in interests and life experiences.
  57. __________ is an effort to enhance appreciation of cultural diversity.
  58. multiculturalism developed as a reaction to the earlier _____________, which was thought to result in _________ losing their identify as they adopted mainstream cultural patterns.
    • melting pot idea
    • minorities'
  59. __________ is strongly at odds with conventional ways of life.
  60. cultural change results from.........
    • invention
    • discovery
    • diffusion
  61. examples of diffusion?
    growing popularity of various ethic foods and musical styles
  62. examples of discovery......
    the recognition that woman are capable of political leadership
  63. ____________ results when some parts of a cultural system change faster than others.
    cultural lag
  64. How do we understand cultural differences?
    • ethnocentrism
    • cultural relativism
  65. ___________ links people to their society but can cause ________ and ________ between societies.
    • ethnocentrism
    • misunderstanding 
    • conflict
  66. ____________ is increasingly important as people of the world come into more and more ______ with each other.
    • cultural relativism 
    • contact
  67. What are some theories of culture?
    • structional-functional theory 
    • social conflict theory 
    • feminist theory
    • sociobiology theory
  68. _____________theory views culture as a relatively stable system built on core values. All ____________ play some part in the ongoing operation of society.
    • structional-functional theory
    • cultural patterns
  69. __________ theory sees culture as a dynamic arena of inequality and conflict.  Cultural patters benefit some categories of people ,ore than others.  _______ claimed that cultural patterns reflect the operation of a society's _____________.
    • Social conflict theory
    • Marx 
    • economic system
  70. ________ theory is a type of social-conflict theory that sees culture as a system of _______ based on gender.
  71. ________ theory explores how the long history of ______ has shaped patterns of culture in today's world.
    • Sociobiology
    • evolution
  72. cultural universals?
    traits that are part of every known culture
  73. gender?
    the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attaches to being a female or male
  74. sociobiology?
    a theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
  75. Culture can _____ the choices we make.
  76. As cultural creatures, we have the _____ to shape and reshape our world to meet our needs and pursue our dreams.
  77. What are the components of culture?
    • symbols
    • language
    • values and beliefs
    • norms