Sociology, Society: The Basics; Chapter 2: Culture
a way of life
shared by members of society
shapes how we act, think and feel
Culture is a _____ trait.
although several species display a limited capacity for culture, only humans begins rely on culture for survival
Culture is a product of _______.
As the human brain evolved, culture replaced _______ instincts as our speices primary stragety for _____.
the ways of thinking, the ways of acting and the material objects that together from a people's way of life.
the ideas created by members of a society
the physical things created by members of a society
people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next.
the idea that people see and understand the world through the culture lens of language
culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
specific ideas that people hold to be true
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
norms for routine or causal interaction
knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
hunting and gathering?
the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food
the use of hand tools to raise crops
the domestication of animals
large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources
the production of goods using advanced soruces of energy to drive large machinery
the production of information suing computer technology
When do we experience culture shock?
when we enter an unfamiliar culture and are not able to read meaning in our new surroundings
When do you create culture shock for others?
When we act in ways they do not understand.
Culture relies on symbols in the form of.....
actions to express meaning
How do people use langage?
to transmit culture from one generation to the next
Because every culture is different, each ______ has words or expression not found in any other language.
values care abstract _______ of what ought to be
values can sometimes _______ one another
low-income countries have cultures that value ______.
higher-income countries have culture that value __________ and __________.
_______ are specific statements that people who share a _______ hold to be true.
________, guide human behavior.
Two types of Norms?
Examples of Mores?
Examples of Folkways?
greeting or dining etiquette
_______ is shaped by ______. We understand technological development in terms of stages of _________.
Stages of Sociocultural Evolution?
hunting and gathering
horticulture and pastoralism
postindustrial information technology
cultural patterns that distinguish society's elite
cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
the dominance of European cultural patterns
promoting African cultural patterns
cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
We live in a ________.
culturally diverse society
This diversity is due to our country's __________.
history of immigration
Diversity reflect differences in social class that set off __________ from ____________.
_________ is based on difference in interests and life experiences.
__________ is an effort to enhance appreciation of cultural diversity.
multiculturalism developed as a reaction to the earlier _____________, which was thought to result in _________ losing their identify as they adopted mainstream cultural patterns.
melting pot idea
__________ is strongly at odds with conventional ways of life.
cultural change results from.........
examples of diffusion?
growing popularity of various ethic foods and musical styles
examples of discovery......
the recognition that woman are capable of political leadership
____________ results when some parts of a cultural system change faster than others.
How do we understand cultural differences?
___________ links people to their society but can cause ________ and ________ between societies.
____________ is increasingly important as people of the world come into more and more ______ with each other.
What are some theories of culture?
social conflict theory
_____________theory views culture as a relatively stable system built on core values. All ____________ play some part in the ongoing operation of society.
__________ theory sees culture as a dynamic arena of inequality and conflict. Cultural patters benefit some categories of people ,ore than others. _______ claimed that cultural patterns reflect the operation of a society's _____________.
Social conflict theory
________ theory is a type of social-conflict theory that sees culture as a system of _______ based on gender.
________ theory explores how the long history of ______ has shaped patterns of culture in today's world.
traits that are part of every known culture
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attaches to being a female or male
a theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
Culture can _____ the choices we make.
As cultural creatures, we have the _____ to shape and reshape our world to meet our needs and pursue our dreams.