A&P Quiz 8

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A&P Quiz 8
2014-03-17 16:04:04

A&P Quiz 8
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  1. Tongue
    Divides into left and right halves
  2. Intrinsic Muscles of Tongue
    • Superior Longitudinal Muscles 
    • Inferior Longitudinal Muscles
    • Vertical Muscles
    • Transverse Muscles
  3. Extrinsic Muscles
    • Genioglossus
    • Hyoglossus
    • Palatoglossus
    • Styloglossus
  4. Superior Longitudinal Muscles
    • Create upper layer of tongue
    • Shorten and pull tongue tip up when contracted
    • Curl Tongue tip and sides
  5. Inferior Longitudinal Muscles
    • Run along lower sides of the tongue
    • Shorten and pull tongue tip down
  6. Vertical Muscles
    • In the sides of the tongue 
    • Flatten tongue when contracted
    • At right angles to the transverse muscles
  7. Transverse Muscles
    • Extend from center to the sides of the tongue 
    • Narrow and elongate the tongue when contracted
  8. Genioglossus
    • Largest of 4 extrinsic muscles
    • Bundles of muscle fibers
    • Originates from in side middle of lower jaw
    • Inserts into the center of the tongue
    • Extends from the tip of tongue to the hyoid bone
    • Aids in the retraction and protrusion of the tongue
  9. Hyoglossus
    • Originates from hyoid bone
    • Inserts into sides and back of tongue
    • Runs along side the genioglossus 
    • Pulls sides of the back of the tongue down when contracted
  10. Palatoglossus (Anterior Faucial Pillar)
    • Lowers velum
    • Originates at soft palate
    • Inserts into back of tongue
    • Works in opposition to hyoglossus 
    • Pulls back sides of tongue up
  11. Styloglossus
    • Works in opposition to genioglossus 
    • Draws tongue back and up when contracted
    • Originates at styloid process of the temporal bone
  12. Mandible
    • Main Purpose: Chewing 
    • Changes the shape and size of our vocal tract 
    • *Tongue can be moved independently of the mandible
  13. Corpus
    • Body of the Mandible 
    • Contains Lower teeth
    • Skeletal Framework for floor of the mouth
  14. Ramus
    Vertical portion of mandible at right angles to the body
  15. Coronoid Process
    Projection of the Ramus
  16. Condylar Process
    • Projection of ramus 
    • Part of mandible that articulates with the skull
  17. Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
    • Where skull and mandible articulate 
    • Allows jaw to move up, down, and from side to side
  18. Masseter Muscle
    • Strongest of the mandibular muscles 
    • Originates at zygomatic arch (cheek bone)
    • Inserts into angle and ramus of the mandible
  19. Medial Pterygoid Muscle
    • On inside of mandible
    • Originates at medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid 
    • Inserts into angle and ramus of the mandible on the inside
  20. Temporalis Muscle
    • Flat fan shaped muscle 
    • Originates at temple
    • Goes under zygomatic arch and inserts into coronoid process
    • Raises jaw quickly 
    • Doesn't have power for chewing
  21. Lateral Pterygoid Muscle
    • Originates from greater wing of the sphenoid and lateral pterygoid plate 
    • Inserts into condyle just below the tempormandibular joint
    • Extends horizontally back
    • Assists in grinding, protrusion of jaw, and opening the mouth
  22. Mylohyoid; Geniohyoid; Anterior Belly of Digastric
    • 3 small muscles that pull on corpus and lower the jaw
    • Originate at lower corpus of the mandible
    • Insert into hyoid bone
  23. Hyoid Bone
    • Acts as a platform for larynx and trachea
    • Platform for lowering the jaw
    • Platform to which tongue is attached
    • Tongue is protruded by pulling hyoid forward
    • Horseshoe shaped
    • Not attached to another bone
    • Can be pulled forward, backward, up, and down
  24. Suprahyoid Muscles
    Suspend the hyoid and pull it back and forth
  25. Mylohyoid; Geniohyoid; Anterior Belly of Digastric
    Pull hyoid forward and slightly up which protrudes the tongue
  26. Stylohyoid; Posterior Belly of Digastric
    • Suspend hyoid form the skull
    • Originate at syloid process and mastoid process 
    • Pull hyoid back; retracts tongue
  27. Infrahyoid Muscles
    • Pull hyoid down 
    • Located under hyoid 
    • 4 Muscles
  28. Thyrohyoid and Sternothyroid muscles
    Descend from muscle and insert into larynx
  29. Omohyoid and Sternohyoid Muscles
    Insert into hyoid
  30. Biological Functions of Articulators
    • Mastication: ability to move unchewed food to the teeth to mix with saliva
    • Deglutition: process of swallowing
  31. Dysphagia
    impaired swallowing
  32. Swallowing
    • Fetus swallows 10-11 weeks after conception 
    • 600-900 times per day for adult
  33. 4 Stages of Swallowing
    • Oral Preparatory Phase
    • Oral Phase
    • Pharyngeal Phase
    • Esophageal Phase
  34. Oral Preparatory Phase
    • Food is prepared for swallowing
    • Voluntary process that can be performed automatically
    • Introduce food to the mouth
    • Grind food and mix it with saliva
    • Move food back to center of the tongue
  35. Oral Phase
    • Food is ready to be swallowed
    • Food is formed into bolus (soft mass of food)
    • Tongue propels back toward faucial pillars
  36. Pharyngeal Phase
    • Contact with faucial pillars triggers it 
    • Velopharyngeal closure occurs 
    • Process of swallowing becomes reflexive 
    • Respiration is interrupted; VF close and epiglottis comes down 
    • Peristaltic wave carries bolus to esophagus
    • Ends when food has reached the esophagus
  37. Esophageal Phase
    • Bolus reaches opening of esophagus 
    • Breathing is resumed 
    • 10-20 secs for food to reach stomach