Ch7T3,4,5

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aphy101
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266790
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Ch7T3,4,5
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2014-03-17 16:22:48
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profmwinston
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Chapter 7 Topics 3-5
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  1. Bones that originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues. (ex: flat bones of the skull, clavicles, sternum, and some facial bones)
    Intramembranous Bones
  2. Bones that begin as masses of hyaline cartilage later replaced by bone tissue. (ex: most bones of the skeleton)
    Endochondral Bones
  3. Bone-forming cells; deposit bony matrix around themselves, forming spongy bone.
    Osteoblasts
  4. When osteoblasts become surrounded by bone matrix, and then enclosed in lacunae (tiny chambers in bone matrix), they are known as what?
    Osteocytes
  5. Tough vascular covering that comes from cells of the connective tissue outside the developing bone; osteoblasts on the inside of the _____ form a layer of compact bone over the surface of the newly formed spongy bone.
    Periosteum
  6. The process of replacing connective tissue to form an intramembranous bone.
    Intramembranous Ossification
  7. Masses of cartilage that begin the development of endochondral bones.
    Hyaline Cartilage
  8. The process of forming an endochondral bone by the replacement of hyaline cartilage.
    Endochondral Ossification
  9. The region in the center of the diaphysis of the long bone where bone develops; bone tissue begins to replace hyaline cartilage and bone develops from it toward the ends of the cartilaginous structure.
    Primary Ossification Center
  10. The regions in the epiphyses of the long bone where spongy bone forms in all directions as the epiphyses remain cartilaginous and continue to grow.
    Secondary Ossification Centers
  11. A band of cartilage between the primary and secondary ossification centers; in the long bone, the diaphysis is separated from the epiphysis by it.
    Epiphyseal Plates
  12. How does Vitamin D influence bone development?
    It's needed for absorption of calcium in the small intestine
  13. What happens if you don't have enough Vitamin D?
    Calcium is poorly absorbed and the inorganic salt portion of bone matrix lacks calcium, softening and deforming bones
  14. How does Vitamin A influence bone development?
    It's necessary for osteoblast and osteoclast activity during normal development
  15. What happens if you don't have enough Vitamin A?
    Bone development will slow down
  16. How does Vitamin C influence bone development?
    It's necessary for collagen synthesis
  17. What happens if you don't have enough Vitamin C?
    Osteoblasts cannot produce enough collagen in the extracellular matrix of the bone tissue, so bones are abnormally slender and fragile
  18. How does a growth hormone influence bone development?
    It stimulates division of cartilage cells in the epiphyseal plates
  19. What happens if you lack a growth hormone?
    The long bones of the limbs fail to develop normally, resulting in pituitary dwarfism
  20. What happens if too much growth hormone is released before the epiphyseal plates ossify?
    It will result in pituitary gigantism; for an adult, it causes acromegaly, in which the hands, feet, and jaw enlarge
  21. How do sex hormones influence bone development?
    At puberty, the hormones are abundant, causing the long bones to grow considerably; they also stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates, which then stops bone lengthening
  22. How does physical stress influence bone development?
    When skeletal muscles contract, they pull at their attachments on bones, and the resulting stress stimulates the bone tissue to thicken and strengthen (hypertrophy)
  23. What happens if you don't have enough physical stress?
    With lack of movement, the bone tissue wastes, becoming thinner and weaker (atrophy)
  24. What happens when levels of blood calcium are too high?
    Excess calcium is deposited into the bones through a negative feedback mechanism of calcium homeostasis
  25. What happens when levels of blood calcium are too low?
    Calcium is released from bone though a positive feedback mechanism of calcium homeostasis
  26. Senses the increased blood calcium and releases calcitonin; part of negative feedback mechanism of calcium homeostasis.
    Thyroid Gland
  27. Secreted by the thyroid gland, stimulates osteoblasts to form bone tissue; part of negative feedback mechanism of calcium homeostasis.
    Calcitonin
  28. Stimulated by calcitonin to form bone tissue; part of negative feedback mechanism of calcium homeostasis.
    Osteoblast
  29. Senses the decreased blood calcium and secretes the parathyroid hormone; part of positive feedback mechanism of calcium homeostasis.
    Parathyroid Gland
  30. Secreted by parathyroid glands, stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone tissue; part of positive feedback mechanism of calcium homeostasis.
    Parathyroid Hormone
  31. Stimulated by the parathyroid hormone to break down bone tissue; part of positive feedback mechanism of homeostasis.
    Osteoclast

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