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What does the term "Unity of Form and Function" mean?
(complementarity of structure and function)- The skeletal system and how it holds the body up. The bones are interlinked and that’s how they hold the body up. Also – red blood cells are concave so that CO2 and Oxygen can move through the membrane. It’s important to be able to identify both the structure and the function and how they complement each other.
What are the levels of structural hierarchy?
- 1. Chemical Level
- a. Atoms
- b. Molecules
- c. Organelles
- 2. Cellular Level
- 3. Tissue Level (4 types)
- 4. Organ Level
- 5. Organ System Level
- 6. Organism Level
What is Anatomical Variation?
Just because we all have the same (or similar) parts, we are not all identical. One body/structure differs from another. Only 70% of the population look like the photos in the text and manual. As an example - it is possible to have the organs switched from right to left or vice versa.
What is Physiological Variation?
This varies more from anatomical variation. It includes heart rate, blood pressure, and glucose levels among others. These variables change all the time with age, weight, and physical activity.
Describe Homeostasis and Negative Feedback.
Homeostasis is the maintenance of stable internal conditions. The body maintains a Dynamic State of Equilibrium which means that the variables fluctuate around a certain set point or average value. Negative feedback is one way that the body maintains homestasis.
The main Negative Feedback Mechanisms include: Opposite Directional Change (if variable is going up, it brings it back down and vice versa), Decrease in Original Stimulus, and Feedback Loops.
What is Positive Feedback?
Postive Feedback Mechanisms include Same Directional Change/Rapid Change, Increase in Original Stimulus, and the Cascade Effect. Examples include Childbirth (pitocin helps to increase the strength of the contractions), blood clotting, and neurotransmitter release.
What can cause Homeostatic Imbalance?
Usually disease causes Homeostatic Imbalance. For example - Diabetes can make it very difficult to control blood glucose levels, especially without medication or insulin.
Name the abdominopelvic quadrants.
Right Upper, Left Upper, Right Lower, and Left Lower
Name the Abdominopelvic Regions.
- Iliac (Right/Left) (inguinal)
- Hypochondriac (Right/Left)
What are isotopes?
Isotopes are varieties of same element, # of protons is the same, but the # of neutrons varies so mass will vary.
Examples: C12 - 6 protons, 6 neutrons; C13 - 6 protons, 7 neutrons; C14 - 6 protons, 8 neutrons
What are radioisotopes?
They are heavier forms or isotopes of an element that are unstable and decompose spontaneously into more stable forms - radiation. The process of decay is called radioactivity.
What is an Ionic Bond?
A relatively weak attraction between a cation and an anion. Easily disrupted in water.
What is a covalent bond?
Sharing of 1 or more pairs of electrons between nuclei.
What is a polar covelent bond?
Covalent bond in which electrons are more attracted to one nucleus than the other, resulting in slightly positive and negative regions in one molecule. May be single or double.
What is a Hydrogen Bond?
Weak attraction between polarized molecules or between polarized regions of the same molecule. IMPORTANT in the 3D folding and coiling of large molecules (proteins). Easily disrupted by changes in temp and pH.
What is an acid?
- Acids have a very sour taste, they're very reactive, and they release H+ ions into a solution (proton donors)
- - HCl, HC2H3O2, H2CO3
What is a base?
- Bases have a very bitter taste, slippery feel, very reactive, proton acceptors, and many release OH.
- - Bicarbonate (HCO3-) is a very important base in the body. It is abundant in blood and and used as a pH buffer.
- - NH3 (ammonia) is produced by protien breakdown and excreted in sweat and urine.
What is pH?
pH is the acid-base concentration. 7 is neutral. Anything less than 7 is acidic (like lemons, milk, coffee, and saliva) and anything higher than 7 is basic (like egg whites, bleach, ammonia, and oven cleaner).
Describe how the Resting Membrane Potential is Generated and Maintained.
a. the rate of Na+ diffusing into the cell is slower than the rate of K+ diffusing out of the cell, because the cell membrane is less permeable to Na+ (More K+ leaves, less Na+ enters); also, large protein anions remain in cell
b. sets up ionic imbalance that results in the outside membrane face being more electrically positive than the inside membrane face which is relatively more negative
2. the active transport of sodium ions and potassium ions by the Na+/K+ pump maintains membrane voltage and osmotic balance, in other words it maintains the resting membrane potential
3. ions diffuse according to not only chemical gradients but electrical gradients as well, called electrochemical gradients
a. very important in activating neurons and muscle cells
Describe the Sodium-Potassium Pump.
Pumps Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell against their concentration gradients. 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in.
What is vesicular transport?
The movement of fluid and particles through a plasma membrane by way of membrane vesicles. Bulk transport. Consumes ATP.
What are the stages and major events of mitosis?
- 1. Prophase: Chromosomes condense and nuclear envelope breaks down. Spindle fibers grow from centrioles. Centrioles migrate to opposite poles.
- 2. Metaphase: Chromosomes line up along midline. Some spindle fibers attach to kinetochores.
- 3. Anaphase: Centromeres divide in 2. Spindle fibers pull sister chromatids to opposite poles.
- 4. Telophase: Chromosomes gather at either pole of cell. Chromatic decondenses. Nuclear envelopes appear. Cell divides.
What is Simple Epithelia?
Simple Squamous is flattened and NOT stratified. Endothelium lines the walls of the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. Mesothelium is found in the serous membranes lining the ventral cavity and covering its' organs. Functions: allows for rapid diffusion or transport of substances thru the membrane; secretes serous fluid.
Simple Cuboidal are cube shaped cells that are not stratified. They are found in the kidney tubules, liver, thyroid, mammary, and salivary glands. Functions: absorption and secretion.
Simple Columnar are column shaped and not stratified. They are found in the linings of the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterus, some uterine tubes, and some kidney tubules. Functions: absorption and secretion of mucus.
Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar are column shaped and LOOK stratified but are not. They are found in the respiratory tract and portions of the male urethra. Functions: Secretes and propels mucus.
What is Stratfied Epithelia?
Stratified Squmous are flattened, layered cells. They are found in the epidermis (palms and soles are heavily keratinized.) Functions: resists abrasion and retards water loss.
Stratified Cuboidal are cube shaped and multi-layered. They are found in sweat gland ducts, egg producing vesicles of ovaries, sperm producing ducts of testis. Functions: contributes to sweat secretion, secretes ovarian hormones, produces sperm.
Transitional are somewhat cube shaped and can easily expand and contract. They are found in the urinary tract (parts of kidney, ureter, bladder, and urethra). Functions: stretching.
What are the 3 main elements of connective tissue?
- 1. Ground Substance - unstructured material, gelatinous
- 2. Fibers - provide support - collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers.
- 3. Have a fundamental cell type that exists in both immature and mature cells.
Describe Areolar Tissue.
Underlies nearly all epithelia, surrounds blood vessels and nerves, fascia between muscles, visceral layers of pericardium and pleura.
Binds epithelia to deeper tissues, allows passage of nerves and blood vessels through other tissues, provides arena for immune defense.
Describe Reticular Tissue.
Found in the lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow.
Supportive framework for lymphatic organs.
Describe Dense Regular Connective Tissue.
Located in the tendons and ligaments.
Binds bones together, resists stress, attaches muscles to bones.
Describe Dense Irregular Connective Tissue.
Located in the deeper protion of the dermis, capsules surrounding the viscera, fibrous sheaths around cartilage and bone.
Durable, hard to tear, withstands stress.
Describe Hyaline Cartilage.
Located at the joints, costal cartilage, trachea, bronchi.
Eases joint movements, holds airway open during respiration, moves vocal folds during speech.
Descibe Elastic Cartilage.
Located in the external ear and the epiglottis.
Provides flexible, elastic support.
Located at the pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs, menisci.
Resists compression and absorbs shock in some joints, often a transitional tissue between dense connective and hyaline cartilage.
What is the difference between general/somesthetic senses vs. special senses?
General Senses have their receptors widely distributed throughout the skin, muscles, tendons, joint capsules, and viscera. These senses include touch, pressure, stretch, heat, cold, & pain. They are relatively simple in structure. An example would be pain which takes place in the primary somesthetic cortex of the parietal lobe and the somesthetic association area.
Special Senses are limited to the head and innervated by cranial nerves. These senses include vision, hearing/equilibrium, taste, and smell. They are relatively complex sense organs. An example would be hearing which occurs in the primary auditory cortex and auditory association area in the temporal lobe.
What is the function of the Sclera?
It covers most of the eye surface (white of eye) and consists of dense collagenous connective tissue.
What is the function of the cornea?
Anterior transparent region - admits light.
What is the function of the choroid?
Highly vascular, deeply pigmented, behind the retina.
What is the function of the ciliary body?
Thickened extension of choroid, muscular ring around lens. Supports the iris and lens and secretes aqueous humor.
What is the function of the retina?
Forms a cup shaped outgrowth of diencephalon - actually part of the brain.
What is the function of the lens?
Tightly compresses transparent cells called lens fibers.
What is myopia?
Nearsightedness - the eyeball is too long, causing the light rays to come into focus before they reach the retina and begin to diverge again before they reach it. Corrected with a concave lens.
What is hyperopia?
Farsightedness - the eyeball is too short, causing the light rays to not be in focus by the time they reach the retina. Corrected with convex lens.
What is astigmatism?
The inability to simultaneously focus light rays that eneter the eye on different plane. Caused by a deviation in the shape of the cornea. Corrected with cylindrical lenses.
What is the pathway of sound through the ear?
1. Auricle 2. Auditory Canal 3. Tympanic Membrane 4. Malleus 5. Incus 6. Stapes 7. Oval Window 8. Cochlea 9. Hair Cells 10. Cochlear Nerve 11. Temporal Lobe
What is the action of the Sternocleidomastoid?
Abducts, rotates, and flexes the head.
What is the action of the Orbicularis Oris?
Closes the lips.
What is the action of the Supinator?
Supinates the hand.
What is the action of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus?
Extends and abducts the hand.
What is the action of the Deltoid?
Abducts arm; flexes, extends, medially and laterally rotates arm.
What is the action of the Biceps Brachii?
Flexes arm, flexes forearm, and supinates hand.
What is the action of the Quadriceps?
- Vastus Intermedius - extends leg
- Vastus Medius - extends leg
- Tensor Fasciae Latae - flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh
What is the action of the Hamstrings?
All 3 (Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, and Semimembranosus) extends the thigh and flexes the leg.
What is the action of the Tibialis Anterior?
Dorsiflexes and inverts the foot.
What is the action of the Gastrocnemius?
Flexes the leg, plantar flexes the foot.
What is the action of the Serratus Anterior?
What is the action of the Diaphragm?
Inspiration and expiration.
What is the action of the Pectoralis Major?
Flexes, adducts, and medially rotates the arm.
What is the origin(s) of the Gastrocnemius?
Condyles of femur.
What is the origin(s) of the Vastus Lateralis?
Greater trochanter and linea aspera of femur.
What is the origin(s) of the Biceps Femoris?
Ischial tuberosity and linea aspera of femur.
What is the origin(s) of the Rhomboideus Major?
Spines of T2-5
What is the insertion of the Gluteus Maximus?
Gluteal tuberosity of femur, iliotibial band of fascia lata
What is the insertion of the Biceps Brachii?
What is the insertion of the Rectus Abdominis?
Cart. of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process
What are the functions of the integumentary system?
- Resistance to trauma and infection
- Barrier against water, dehydration, UV rays, and harmful chemicals.
- Vitamin D synthesis
- Nonverbal communication
What are the different layers of the Epidermis?
- Stratum Corneum: scaly, keratinized dead skin cells
- Stratum Lucidum: seen only in thick skin
- Stratum Granulosum: 3 to 5 layers of keratinocytes
- Stratum Spinosum: Thickest stratum, contains several layers of keratinocytes
- Stratum Basale: conatins melanocytes and tactile cells.
What are the different layers of the Dermis?
- Papillary Layer: areolar connective tissue, superficial to reticular layer.
- Reticular Layer: dense irregular tissue, small clusters of adipocytes, less ground substance.
What 3 main pigments create skin color?
Melanin, Hemoglobin, and Carotene.
What is the ABCD rule?
- A = asymmetry
- B = border irregularity
- C = color
- D = diameter
What are the functions of the bones?
- 1. support
- 2. protection
- 3. movement
- 4. electrolyte balance
- 5. acid-base balance
- 6. blood formation
- 7. produces a hormone that regulates insulin
What are inorganic hydroxyapatites?
Present as tiny crystals around collagen fibers - bone hardness, "twister resistors"
What are the effects of calcitonin?
Promotes mineralization and lowers blood Ca2+concentration in children, may prevent bone loss in pregnant and lactating women
What are the effects of calcitriol (vit D)?
Promotes intestinal aborption of Ca2+ and phosphate, reduces urinary excretion of both, promotes both resorption and mineraliation, stimulates osteoclast activity
What are the effects of Parathyroid Hormone?
Indirectly activates osteoclasts, which resorb bone and elevates blood Ca2+ concentration, inhibits urinary Ca2+ excretion, promotes calcitriol synthesis.
What are the stages in healing a fracture?
- 1. Hematoma formation
- 2. Soft callous formation
- 3. hard callous formation
- 4. bone remodeling
Describe a Ball and Socket Joint.
Multi-axial. Humeroscapular joint.
Describe a Pivot Joint.
Monaxial; joint spins on longitudinal axis. Radioulnar joint.
Describe a Saddle Joint.
Biaxial. Trapeziometacarpal joint at base of thumb - opposable thumb.
Describe a Hinge Joint.
Monaxial. Interphalangeal joints.
Describe a Plane Joint.
Biaxial, very limited. Carpal bones of wrist.
Describe a Condylar Joint.
Biaxial. Atlantooccipital joint.
What are the 3 functional types of joints and how do they differ?
- Synarthrosis: Fibrous, Sutures are synarthrosis joints - Sad because it cannot move
- Amphiarthrosis: Cartilaginous, Symphysis Pubis is an amphiarthrosis joint - Acceptable because it is flexible
- Diarthrosis: Synovial, any freely moveable joint in the body is a diarthrodial joint - Delighted because it is freely moveable
What are the functions of muscles?
Movement, Stability, Control of Body Openings and Passages, Heat Production
Compare the action of a prime mover (agonist) with that of an antagonist and give an example of an agonist and antagonist working together to produce a particular movement.
- A prime mover is the muscle that produces most of the force during a particular joint action. In flexing the elbow, the prime mover is the biceps brachii.
- An antagonist is the muscle that opposes the prime mover – such as the triceps brachii.
Describe sensory receptors and their classification by modality.
They are structures specialized to respond to changes in the environment - stimuli.
- 1. Mechanoreceptors: generate impulses when deformed by touch, pressure, vibration, stretch, itch (proprioceptors and baroreceptors)
- 2. Thermoreceptors: temp. changes
- 3. Photoreceptors: respond to light energy (in retina)
- 4. Chemoreceptors: respond to chemicals in a solution such as smell, taste, or changes in blood chemistry
- 5. Nociceptors: respond to damaging stimuli
All receptors can be a Nociceptor
at one time or another (such as when a Thermoreceptor
responds to heat)
Descibe the regeneration of nerve fibers.
- 1. Mature neurons do NOT divide (amitotic)
- 2. If damage is severe or close to the cell body, the entire neuron and those stimulated by its axon may die
- 3. If cell body remains intact, cut or compressed axons on peripheral nerves can regenerate
- 4. Most nerve fibers in the CNS never regenerate.
Describe spinal nerves.
- There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves and they supply all areas of the body except for the head and some areas of the neck. They are all mixed nerves and each connects to the spinal chord by 2 roots.
- 1. Dorsal Roots: contain sensory fibers, conduct impulses TO spinal chord.
- 2. Ventral Roots: contain motor fibers that innervate the skeletal muscles and viscera.
What is the phrenic nerve?
- -receives major input from C3 and C4
- -supplies both motor and sensory fibers to the diaphragm
- -causes spasms of diaphragm or hiccups
- -if severely damaged or destroyed, can cause the diaphragm to be paralyzed and cause respiratory arrest
- **Remember: You are FRANTIC if you are suffocating!
What is the sciatic nerve?
- -supplies almost entire lower limb
- -injury to proximal part due to fall, disc herniation, or improper administration of imjection into a buttock can greatly impair the lower limb - stabbing pain, cannot flex leg, all foot and ankle movements can be lost
What are the components of a reflex arc?
- 1. Receptor - site of stimulus action
- 2. Sensory Neuron - transmits afferent impulses to CNS
- 3. Integration Center - one or more synapses in the CNS
- 4. Motor Neuron - conducts efferent impulses from integration center to an effector organ
- 5. Effector - muscle fiber or gland cell that responds to efferent impulses
What is the Parasympathetic Division of the ANS?
The "resting-digesting" system - most active in non-stressful situations. Oversees digestion, elimination, and glandular functions.
What is the Sympathetic Division of the ANS?
The "fight or flight" system - activates body to cope with a stressor - exercise, emergency, excitement, embarassment.
Remember the difference: If you are in an emergency or are embarassed, you will need SYMPATHY.
Describe the neurotransmitters released by autonomic motor neurons.
- 2 major different neurotransmitters: ACh and NE (norephinephrine). Nerve fibers are classified based on neurotransmitters released.
- 1. Cholinergic - ACh - all preganglionic neurons and parasympathetic ganglionic/postganglionic neurons release ACh
- 2. Adrenergic - NE - only sympathetic ganglionic/postganglionic neurons release NE
- The effects can be stimulatory or inhibatory depending on the receptors to which they attach.
- Most viscera are innervated by both divisions and interact in various ways - mostly antagonistic.
What are some roles that are unique to the sympathetic division?
- 1. Blood pressure regulation (vasomotor tone)
- 2. Shunting of blood in vascular system (vasomotor tone)
- 3. Thermoregulatory responses (sweating)
- 4. Stimulation of renin release by the kidneys (increases BP)
- 5. Metabolic effects (increase glycogen breakdown)
- 6. Increase RAS activity