World History Ch.26-29 Test

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  1. Reconstruction
    Period in (1865-1877) the victorious North use military occupation to try and force the South to extend voting and property rights to the former slaves.
  2. Appomattox Court House
    General Area in Appotatox County VA where Gen. Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant on April 9, 1865
  3. Roosevelt Corollary
    President Theodore Roosevelt expands on the Monroe Doctrine, to bar entry to foreign, mainly European empires, while allowing the United States to use its muscle to obtain concessions and privileges for American corporations.
  4. Trail of Tears
    (1838-1839) 16,000 Cherokees were displaced, and killed in order to obtain their territory, as they were in the way of America's "manifest destiny".
  5. Manifest Destiny
    the American belief in 1844 that their domination of the American continent was God's will.
  6. Antonio López de Santa Anna
    Mexican military dictator, former caudillo. Led Mexican forces in the seizure of the Alamo. Also led Mexican forces in failed battles against France, Texan Army, and the United States.
  7. Mexican History from 1829-1914, how successful was the country in dealing with challenges it faced? Access the roles of Santa Ana Juarez, Juarez, and Madero.
    Mexico during 1821-1914 had newly achieved independence, and a federal constitution. Under the rule and military leadership of Santa Ana Mexico defeated a Texan rebellion at the Alamo however went of ultimately face defeat by the Texan Army in San Jacinto. Mexico also lost a war against the United States and lost half of its territory, then went on to lose a war against France and was then occupied by France. France was later driven off Mexican soil by Benito Juarez. Santa Ana was a military dictator that sought personal glory and often times profit, while Benito Juarez Benito is remembered as being a progressive reformer dedicated to democracy, equal rights for his nation's indigenous peoples, his antipathy toward organized religion contrasted a lot of Santa Ana's conservative ways. Francisco Ignacio Madero González was Madero was the prototypical upper-class politician Madero was instrumental in creating the revolutionary movement that began in 1910 and led to the fall of the dictatorship of then-president, Porfirio Diaz. As president he tried to reconcile Mexico but was unsuccessful.
  8. Gavrilo Princip
    was a Bosnian Serb who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, on the northern end of the Latin Bridge in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914
  9. Schlieffen Plan
    Germany's overall strategic plan for victory in a possible future war in which it avoid a two front war. The plan was implemented in WWI but broke down in trench warfare.
  10. Black Thursday
    October 24, 1929, the start of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 at the New York Stock Exchange start of an economic downfall mainly due to lack of investors due to panic and fear of losing invested money.
  11. Trace the patterns of events that led to WWI. Why couldn't the great powers avoid war? How neutral was the United States during the first years of WWI? Didn't Germany have valid reasons to use submarine warfare to disrupt material support of its European trading partners?
    Crisis that led to WWI include the Balkan crises (the first and second Balkan wars) which then led to Austrian and Serbian tensions over the expansionist ambitions of Serbia. Following the assassination of the Arch Duke Francis Ferdinand and his wife which sparked Austria to give Serbia a list of ultimatums which were not met to their satisfaction. Germany Austria's ally failed to stop Austria from perusing the war and was forced to mobilize in order to avoid defeat by the Russia which was Serbia's ally. Thus began WWI. The neutrality to WWI was somewhat ambiguous. In terms of hostilities the U.S was neutral, however in economic terms the U.S was heavily invested in allied powers this however was due to the British Blockade. Germany cites the lack of neutrality to allied powers in the economic part and the Lusitania transporting munitions as its incentive to attack the vessel.
  12. Zionism
    The search for a Jewish homeland in Palestine
  13. War Communism
    Lenin applied fundamental Marxist principles which eliminated private ownership of property, nationalized banks, railways, and shipping thus restricting the money economy.
  14. Kristallnacht
    The "night of the broken glass" when on Nov 9, 1938, Nazi sympathizers smashed the windows of Jewish shops, burned synagogues, and killed 91 people. In addition, more than 30,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps and a fine of 1 billion DM was imposed on the Jewish community, all in response to the murder of a minor German diplomat in Paris
  15. Lateran Treaty
    A pact that required compulsory religious instruction and recognized Catholicism as the official state religion. It granted the Catholic church Vatican city sovereignty and independence.
  16. Reichstag fire
    The Reichstag fire (German: Der  Reichstagsbrand (help·info)) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building in Berlin on 27 February 1933. Marinus van der Lubbe, a young Dutch council communist and unemployed bricklayer who had recently arrived in Germany, ostensibly to carry out political activities was caught at the scene and admitted starting the fire. The fire was used as evidence by the Nazis that the Communists were plotting against the German government and the event is seen as pivotal in the establishment of Nazi Germany.
  17. What was there in Hitler's message that convinced the German people to back him? Explain why there was minimal opposition to the anti-Semitic both within and outside of Germany? Compare and contrast the ideological development of Mussolini and Hitler. Why were their primitive ideologues taken seriously?
    In the wake of WWI the Germany was in an economic crisis, coupled with the defeats met in the war the nation's morale was low. Hitler with his effective oratory style and propaganda campaigns inspired pride and hope to the German people in addition his regime met the German's basic economic needs. There was minimal opposition to German antisemitic activities apart from the power and control that Hitlers dictatorship had within Germany and out, this was an issue that many people did not know how to approach, as outcries over human rights violations was not as prevalent in practice as it became in modern times. Hitler and Mussolini were both fascist leaders that promoted Nationalism and state centralism, National expansion in foreign policy National expansion in foreign policy and Anti-individualism. They differed in that Racial theory and anti-semitism central to Hitler’s social vision, whereas it was not a defining aspect of Mussolini's rule. pragmatic and flexible nature of Mussolini’s policies differed from Hitler's- “only maniacs never change” (Mussolini) - changed fascism from left to right. Mussolini publicly recognized the Catholic church and made it an official state religion whereas Hitler disliked Christianity for the most part. Their primitive ideologies where exepted due to their keen ability to exploit feelings of national discontentment following the Versailles settlement. As rulers who had received widespread support based on their ability to express grand visions of future with their charismatic propaganda.
  18. Fascism
    Fascism /fæʃɪzəm/ is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. Influenced bynational syndicalism, the first fascist movements emerged in Italy around World War I, combining more typically right-wing positions with elements of left-wing politics, in opposition to communism, socialism, liberal democracy and traditional conservatism. Although fascism is usually placed on the far right on the traditional left–right spectrum, fascists themselves and some commentators have argued that the description is inadequate.
  19. Dollar Diplomacy
    Dollar Diplomacy was a way that the United States used its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries to further its aims in these nations, and also use military force to intervene in their domestic issues when "instability arose. It invested heavily in Central American and Caribbean countries and barred European nations from doing the same. The United States used debt as a way to ensure future abilities to intervene in these countries for example using American banks to refinance Haiti's national debt. When conditions did not favor the United State's imperial ambitions, the United States used military intervention or financed insurgents to start a rebellion and oust the uncooperative leaders such as Nicaraguan president Jose Santos Zelaya when he was negotiating with Germany and Japan to construct a canal. As a result the United State labeled him a tyrant and proceed to have him overthrown.
  20. Battle of Jutland
    (1916) Only major Naval battle in WWI between the Australian Royal Navy and the Canadian Royal Navy whom defeated the German High Seas Fleet and resulted in Germany sinking the remainder of their ships to prevent the allies from obtaining them.
  21. Fourteen Points
    An outlined plan for peace drafted by Pres. Woodrow Wilson and given to congress and presented to the league of nations' peace conference.
  22. Sun Yat-sen
    was a Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China ("Nationalist China"). As the foremost pioneer of Republic of China, Sun is referred to as the "Father of the Nation"
  23. Mao Zedong
    was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death. His Marxist-Leninist theories, military strategies and political policies are collectively known as Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought.Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and the people's livelihood
  24. Long March
    was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army
  25. Mahatma Gandhi
    was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.
  26. Amritsar Massacre
    Infamous action in which British troops marched into a courtyard and fired on an unarmed crowd that had gathered for a religious festival not for political reasons
  27. Nguyễn Sinh Côn, Ho Chi Minh
    was a Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister (1945–1955) and president (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945, as well as the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Việt Cộng (NLF or VC) during the Vietnam War.
  28. Discuss the pros and cons of direct rule, indirect rule, and assimilation as colonial policies from the point of view of an administrator of an imperialist nation in regard to overseas colonial management
  29. Ghandis noncooperation movement
    The noncooperation movement resisted British Occupation through non violent means such as symbolic protesting and boycotting British goods like The Salt March, also mainly known as the Salt Satyagraha, began with the Dandi March on 12 March 1930, and was an important part of the Indian independence movement. It was adirect action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly in colonial India, and triggered the wider Civil Disobedience Movement. This was the most significant organised challenge to British authority since the Non-cooperation movement of 1920–22, and directly followed the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence by the Indian National Congress on 26 January 1930.Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (commonly called Mahatma Gandhi) led the Dandi march from his base, Sabarmati Ashram near Ahmedabad, to the coastal village of Dandi, located at a small town called Navsari, in the state of Gujarat
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World History Ch.26-29 Test
Material for Ch.26-29 Test
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