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2014-03-17 18:33:33

Chapter 6 Skin and Glands
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  1. List some functions of skin.
    It prevents harmful substances from entering the body, slows water loss, helps regulate body temperature, houses sensory receptors, helps initiate immune response, excretes small amounts of waste, and produces a vitamin D precursor
  2. List the 3 layers of skin from the outside in.
    Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous
  3. Outer layer of skin composed of stratified squamous epithelium.
    Epidermis Layer
  4. Inner layer of skin composed of connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers, smooth muscle tissue, nervous tissue, and blood.
    Dermis Layer
  5. Masses of areolar and adipose tissue that binds the skin to underlying organs; also insulates and contains major blood vessels that supply the skin.
    Subcutaneous Layer
  6. A process in which older skin cells (keratinocytes) begin to harden.
  7. Specialized cells in the stratum basale of the epidermis that produce melanin.
  8. Dark pigment produced by melanocytes that provides skin color.
  9. List the 5 layers of the epidermis from the outside in.
    Stratum Corneum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Basale
  10. Outermost layer of the epidermis; consists of many layers of keratinized, dead epithelial cells that are flattened and non-nucleated.
    Stratum Corneum
  11. Layer of the epidermis on soles and palms; cells appear clear; the nuclei, organelles, and cell membranes are no longer visible.
    Stratum Lucidum
  12. Layer of the epidermis consisting of three to five layers of flattened granular cells that contain shrunken fibers of keratin and shriveled nuclei.
    Stratum Granulosum
  13. Layer of the epidermis consisting of many layers of cells with centrally located, large, oval nuclei and developing fibers of keratin; cells becoming flattened
    Stratum Spinosum
  14. The deepest layer of the epidermis; consists of a single row of cuboidal or columnar cells that divide and grow; this layer also includes melanocytes.
    Stratum Basale
  15. Oil-producing glands that contain groups of specialized epithelial cells and are usually associated with hair follicles; secretes sebum into hair follicles which helps keep the hairs and the skin soft, pliable, and waterproof.
    Sebaceous Glands
  16. Abundant sweat glands with odorless secretion; they lower body temperature; originate in deep dermis or subcutaneous layer and open to surface on forehead, neck, and back.
    Eccrine Sweat Glands
  17. Less numerous sweat glands with secretions that develop odors as skin bacteria metabolize them; become active at puberty and wet skin during pain, fear, emotional upset, and sexual arousal; located near hair follicles in armpit and groin.
    Apocrine Sweat Glands
  18. Modified sweat glands of the external acoustic meatus that secrete ear wax.
    Ceruminous Glands
  19. Modified sweat glands that secrete milk in breasts.
    Mammary Glands