2nd semester "ventilation" part two
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What are conducting airways? and are they involved in gas exchange?
Passageway between the ambient environment and gas exchange units of the lungs (the alveoli). They don't participate in gas exchange. It is divided into the upper and lower airways.
What 4 structures are considered to be the UPPER airways?
- 1. Nose
- 2. Oral cavity
- 3. Pharynx
- 4. Larynx
What are the four primary functions of the upper airways?
1. act as a conductor of air
2. humidify and warm or cool inspired air
3. to prevent foreign materials from entering the tracheobronchial tree
4. to serve as an important area involved in speech and smell
What are the 3 primary functions of the nose?
- 1. filter
- 3.condition (warm or cool) inspired air
(also important for smell and phonation)
Initially air passes through a slightly dilated area called the _____, which contains hair follicles that are called _____.
What do the vibrissae do?
they function as a filter and they are the first line of defense.
Where are the receptors for sense and smell located ?
How do tonsils help us?
immunologic defense response and protect against bacteria and other harmful substances that enter the nasopharynx
How does the uvula help us?
helps to prevent vomit from coming out of the nares
What is the name of the only bone within the throat area?
pharyngeal tonsils are also called the ___.
What is the most common cause of epiglottitis?
hemaphylis influenza bacteria
Laryngeotracheobronchitis is also known as?
What is the "vallecula epiglottica" ? and why is it important to us?
Crevice that runs from the base of the tongue to the epiglottis.
Important anatomic landmark during the insertion of an endotracheal tube into the trachea.
What is a pharyngeal reflex?
"gag" reflex to help prevent aspiration of food or liquid, and to prevent tongue from falling back and obstructing the airway.
What is the larynx? what are its three main functions?
1. passage way for air between pharynx and trachea
2. protects against aspiration
3. generates sound for speech
What does the epiglottis do?
prevents aspiration by covering larynx during swallowing
How long is the adult trachea?
11-12 cm long, 2-2 1/2 cm in diameter
(side note: 2.5 cm = 1 inch)
How many ribs people have ?
What is the narrowest region of the upper airway for a child and a adult?
child : cricoid cartilage (glottis located between C3 and C4)
What is ventilation?
the process that moves gases between the external environment and the alveoli
What is needed in order for gas to flow from one point to another? what is this called?
There must be a "pressure difference" between the two points.
The pressure difference is called a pressure gradient
Which was does gas always move on the pressure gradient? what does this mean?
Always moves DOWN.
which means that gases always move from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area.
What are the 3 primary principles of ventilation?
1. gas always moves down the pressure gradient (that is,high press to low press)
2. during inspiration, the PB is greater than the alveolar pressure
3. during expiration, the alveolar pressure is greater than the PB
what does Boyles law state ?
A volume of gas varies inversely proportional to its pressure at constant temperature.
what happens when equilibrium is reached?
gas flow stops.
What are the two points where gas flow stops ? (equilibrium is reached)
1. end of inspiration (or pre expiration)
2.end of exhalation (or pre inhalation)
What is the "Mediastinum"?
A cavity that contains organs and tissue in the center of the thoracic cage between the right and left lungs.
What is contained within the Mediastinum? (7)
- 1. trachea
- 2. heart
- 3. major blood vessels that enter & exit the heart
- 4. various nerves
- 5. portion of the esophagus
- 6.thymus gland
- 7. lymph nodes
What would happen if the Mediastinum were to be compressed or distorted?
It can severely compromise the cardiopulmonary system
What is the "hilum"?
a part of the lung where the main stem bronchi, vessels and nerves enter.
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