EMS medical language exam study material

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mac519
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266832
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EMS medical language exam study material
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2014-03-17 21:29:30
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vital vocab from prep kits of numerous chapters
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  1. a method used to predict diffi cult intubation. a mouth opening of less than three fi ngers wide, a mandible length of less than three fi ngers wide, and a distance from hyoid bone to thyroid notch of less than two fi ngers wide indicate a possibly diffi cult airway
    3-3-2 rule
  2. 6 ps of musculoskeletal assessment
    pain, paralysis, parasthesias, pulselessness, pallor, and pressure.
  3. a guideline to follow regarding the distance to place between oneself and a person who sneezes or coughs, to avoid exposure to germs.
    6- feet rule
  4. movement away from the midline of the body.
    abduction
  5. a term used to describe the shape of the qrs complex in aberrantly conducted beats.
    aberration
  6. a premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus.
    abruptio placenta
  7. infl ammation of the gallbladder without the presence of gallstones.
    acalculus cholecystitis
  8. the depression on the lateral pelvis where its three component bones join, in which the femoral head fi ts snugly.
    acetabulum
  9. a chemical neurotransmitter which servers as a mediator in both the sympathetic and parasym-pathetic nervous systems.
    acetylcholine ( ach)
  10. the enzyme that causes muscle relax-ation by helping to break down acetylcholine.
    acetylcholinesterase
  11. light, clay- colored stools indicative of liver failure.
    acholic stools
  12. any molecule that can give up a hydrogen ion ( h + ), and therefore increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a water solution.
    acid
  13. a slow- growing, benign tumor of the vestibular cochlear nerve that can lead to loss of hearing in the affected ear.
    acoustic neuroma
  14. an injury caused by distraction of the clavicle away from the acromion process of the scapula.
    acromioclavicular separation ( ac separation)
  15. lateral extension of the scapula that forms the highest point of the shoulder.
    acromion
  16. the tip of the shoulder and the site of attachment for both the clavicle and various shoulder muscles.
    acromion process
  17. an electrochemical event where stimula-tion of a nearby cell could cause excitation of another cell.
    action potentials
  18. mediators of infl ammation trigger the appearance of molecules known as selectins and integrins on the sur-faces of endothelial cells and polymorphonuclear neutro-phils, respectively.
    activation
  19. the dilation of arterioles after transient arteriolar constriction, which allows infl ux of blood under increased pressure.
    active hyperemia
  20. a medication that has undergone bio-transformation and is able to alter a cellular process or body function.
    active metabolite
  21. a method used to move compounds across a cell membrane to create or maintain an imbalance of charges, usually against a concentration gradient and requiring the expenditure of energy.
    active transport
  22. the basic activities a person usually accomplishes during a normal day, such as eating, dressing, and washing.
    activities of daily living ( adls)
  23. a condition of sudden onset of pain within the abdomen, usually indicating peritonitis; demands immediate medical or surgical treatment.
    acute abdomen
  24. increased intra-ocular pressure that leads to ocular pain and decreased visual acuity; sudden onset is a medical emergency.
    acute angle- closure glaucoma ( aacg)
  25. a vasoocclusive crisis that can be associated with pneumonia; common signs and symptoms include chest pain, fever, and cough; associated with sickle cell disease.
    acute chest syndrome
  26. a family of conditions that revolve around a central theme of infection with fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.
    acute gastroenteritis
  27. a condition in which lung tissue is dam-aged, characterized by hypoxemia, low lung volume, and pulmonary edema.
    acute lung injury
  28. an altitude illness characterized by headache plus at least one of the following: fatigue or weakness, gastrointestinal symptoms ( nausea, vomiting or anorexia), dizziness or light- headedness, or diffi culty sleeping.
    acute mountain sickness ( ams)
  29. the clinical course that usu-ally begins within hours of exposure to a radiation source. symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and headache. the long- term symptoms are dose-related and are hematopoietic and gastrointestinal.
    acute radiation syndrome
  30. a sudden decrease in fi ltration through the glomeruli.
    acute renal failure ( arf)
  31. a condition in which red blood cells become trapped in the spleen, caus-ing a dramatic fall in hemoglobin available in the circula-tion; usually occurs in infants or toddlers.
    acute splenic sequestration syndrome
  32. the temporary or permanent reduction of sensi-tivity to a particular stimulus.
    adaptation
  33. immunity; it targets specifi c pathogens and acts more slowly than innate defenses.
    adaptive ( specifi c) defense
  34. acute adrenal insuffi ciency.
    addisonian crisis
  35. movement toward the midline of the body.
    adduction
  36. the pharyngeal tonsil; located on the posterior nasopharyngeal wall.
    adenoid
  37. the nucleotide involved in energy metabolism; used to store energy.
    adenosine triphosphate ( atp)
  38. the attachment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to endothelial cells, mediated by selectins and integrins.
    adhesion
  39. fat tissue that lies beneath the skin, between muscles, around the kidneys, behind the eyes, in certain abdominal membranes, on the heart’s surface, and around
    adipose tissue
  40. the surrounding structures and accessories of an organ; for the eye: the eyelids, lashes, lacrimal structures.
    adnexa
  41. the outer layer of the adrenal gland; it pro-duces hormones that are important in regulating the water and salt balance of the body.
    adrenal cortex
  42. paired endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys that release adrenalin when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system; each adrenal gland consists of an inner adrenal medulla and an adrenal cortex.
    adrenal glands
  43. the inner part of the adrenal glands that produces catecholamines ( epinephrine and norepinephrine).
    adrenal medulla
  44. a type of receptor that is associated with the sympathetic nerves and that is stimulated by epi-nephrine and norepinephrine; activation causes a sympa-thetic response.
    adrenergic receptor
  45. hormone that targets the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol ( a glucocorticoid).
    adrenocorticotropic hormone ( acth)
  46. a type of breath sound that occurs in addi-tion to the normal breath sounds; examples are crackles and wheezes.
    adventitious
  47. abnormal breath sounds such as wheezes, rhonchi, rales, stridor, and pleural friction rubs.
    adventitious breath sounds
  48. the structure in the kidney that supplies blood to the glomerulus.
    afferent arteriole
  49. nerves that send information to the brain.
    afferent nerves
  50. the ability of a medication to bind with a particular receptor site.
    affi nity
  51. the offi cial internal report of the entire event, such as a disaster, which should contain the facts of the incident refl ected in a chronologic, accurate manner.
    after- action report ( aar)
  52. continued fall in core temperature after a victim of hypothermia has been removed from a cold environ-ment, due at least in part to the return of cold blood from the body surface to the body core.
    afterdrop
  53. the perception of a stimuli is still present after the stimuli is removed.
    after- image
  54. inability to connect an object with its correct name.
    agnosia
  55. pertaining to the period of dying.
    agonal
  56. slow, gasping respirations, indicating life-threatening cerebral injury or ischemia.
    agonal gasps
  57. a cardiac dysrhythmia seen just before the heart stops altogether; essentially asystole with occasional qrs complexes that are not associated with cardiac output.
    agonal rhythm
  58. a substance that mimics the actions of a specifi c neu-rotransmitter or hormone by binding to the specifi c recep-tor of the naturally occurring substance; triggers a response, producing some kind of action or biologic effect.
    agonist
  59. the group of medications that initi-ates or alters a cellular activity by attaching to receptor sites, prompting a cellular response.
    agonist medications
  60. leukocytes that lack granules.
    agranulocytes
  61. the presence of air in the venous circulation, which forms a gas bubble that can block the outfl ow of blood from the right ventricle to the lung; can lead to car-diac arrest, shock, or other life- threatening complications.
    air embolism
  62. the smallest of plasma proteins; they make up around 60% of these proteins by weight.
    albumins
  63. the metabolic acidotic state that manifests because of the inadequate nutritional habits associated with chronic alcohol abuse. the experience inadequate fuel reserves of glycogen and, thus, have to switch to fatty acid metabolism.
    alcoholic ketoacidosis
  64. one of the two main hormones responsible for adjustments to the fi nal composition of urine; increases the rate of active reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions into the blood and decreases reabsorption of potassium.
    aldosterone
  65. variant forms of a gene, which can be identical or slightly different in dna sequence.
    alleles
  66. the act of conducting comprehen-sive preplanning that will apply to any disaster.
    all-hazards approach
  67. cells located in the islets of langerhans that secrete glucagon.
    alpha cells
  68. stimulation of alpha receptors that results in vasoconstriction.
    alpha effects
  69. time parameters that are set during a research project.
    alternative time parameters
  70. conditions caused by the effects from hypobaric ( low atmospheric pressure) hypoxia on the cen-tral nervous system and pulmonary systems as a result of unacclimatized people ascending to altitude; range from acute mountain sickness ( ams) to high- altitude cere-bral edema ( hace) and high- altitude pulmonary edema ( hape).
    altitude illness
  71. ducts formed from division of the respira-tory bronchioles in the lower airway; each duct ends in clusters known as alveoli.
    alveolar ducts
  72. the ridges between the teeth that are cov-ered with thickened connective tissue and epithelium.
    alveolar ridges
  73. lazy eye; the eyes may be oriented correctly but one fails to send adequate signals to the vision centers, also causing a loss of depth perception and poor- quality images.
    amblyopia
  74. absence of menstruation.
    amenorrhea
  75. a commonly used industrial- grade fer-tilizer that is not in itself dangerous to handle or transport, but when mixed with fuel and other components, forms an extremely explosive compound.
    ammonium nitrate
  76. an extremely rare, life- threatening condition that occurs when amniotic fl uid and fetal cells enter the pregnant woman’s pulmonary and circulatory system through the placenta via the umbilical veins, causing an exag-gerated allergic response from the woman’s body.
    amniotic fluid embolism
  77. a class of drugs that increase alertness and excitation ( stimulants); includes methamphetamine ( crank or ice), methylenedioxyamphetamine ( mda, adam), and methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( mdma, eve, ecstasy).
    amphetamines
  78. als, also known as lou gehrig disease, strikes the voluntary motor neurons, causing their death. the disease is characterized by fatigue and general weakness of muscle groups; eventually the patient becomes unable to walk, eat, or speak.
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ( als)
  79. the synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones.
    anabolism
  80. linear tears to the mucosal lining in and near the anus, possibly caused by the passage of large, hard stools; a cause of lower gi bleeding.
    anal fissures
  81. a severe hypersensitivity reaction that involves bronchoconstriction and cardiovascular collapse.
    anaphylactic shock
  82. an extreme allergic response that does not involve ige antibody mediation. the exact mecha-nism is unknown, but an anaphylactoid event may occur without the patient being previously exposed to the offend-ing agent.
    anaphylactiod reaction
  83. occurs when an initial reference point dis-torts your estimates.
    anchoring bias
  84. male sex hormones mostly produced by the tes-ticular interstitial cells, and which regulate body changes associated with sexual development ( puberty), including growth spurts, deepening of the voice, growth of facial and pubic hair, and muscle growth and strength.
    androgens
  85. a lower than normal hemoglobin or erythrocyte level.
    anemia
  86. a vascular reaction that may have an allergic cause and may result in profound swelling of the tongue and lips.
    angioedema
  87. the growth of new blood vessels.
    angiogenesis
  88. prominence on the sternum that lies oppo-site the second intercostal space.
    angle of Louis
  89. unequal pupils with a greater than 1- mm difference.
    anisocoria
  90. an absence of oxygen.
    anoxia
  91. a molecule that blocks the ability of a given chemical to bind to its receptor, preventing a biologic response.
    antagonist
  92. the group of medications that prevent endogenous or exogenous agonist chemicals from reaching cell receptor sites and initiating or altering a par-ticular cellular activity.
    antagonist medications
  93. aqueous chamber; portion of the eye-ball fi lled with aqueous humor, a fl uid whose quantity determines the intraocular pressure, which is critical to sight.
    anterior cavity
  94. a condition that occurs with fl exion injuries or fractures, resulting in the displacement of bony fragments into the anterior portion of the spinal cord; fi ndings include paralysis below the level of the insult and loss of pain, temperature, and touch sensation.
    anterior cord syndrome
  95. the artery that travels through the anterior muscles of the leg and continues to the foot as the dorsalis pedis.
    anterior tibial artery
  96. an inability to remember events after the onset of amnesia.
    anterograde amnesia
  97. loss of memory relating to events that occurred after the injury.
    anterograde (post-traumatic) amnesia
  98. a protein secreted by cer-tain immune cells that reacts against foreign antigens in the body by binding to the antigens, making them more visible to the immune system.
    antibody (immunoglobulin)
  99. secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe of the pituitary gland, this hormone con-stricts blood vessels and raises the blood is responsible for adjustments to the fi nal composition of urine by causing ducts in the kidney to become more per-meable to water; also called vasopressin .
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  100. a substance or molecule that, when taken into the body, stimulates immune system response and causes for-mation of specifi c protective proteins called antibodies.
    antigen
  101. the medications used to kill or suppress the growth of microorganisms.
    antimicrobials
  102. chemicals used to cleanse an area before per-forming an invasive procedure, such as starting an iv line; not toxic to living tissues; examples include isopropyl alco-hol and iodine.
    antiseptics
  103. a complete cessation of urine production.
    anuria
  104. the relief of anxiety.
    anxiolysis
  105. a bond between an infant and his or her parent or caregiver in which the infant is repeatedly rejected and develops an isolated lifestyle that does not depend on the support and care of others.
    anxious avoidant attachment
  106. a condition in which the aortic valve thick-ens due to fi brosis and calcifi cation, obstructing blood fl ow from the left ventricle.
    aortic sclerosis
  107. a condition in which the aortic valve does not open fully, decreasing blood fl ow from the heart.
    aortic stenosis
  108. the pointed extremity of a conical structure.
    apex ( plural: apices)
  109. the impairment of language that affects the produc-tion or understanding of speech and the ability to read or write.
    aphasia
  110. the inability to speak.
    aphonia
  111. a temporary stop in the production of red blood cells; may occur as a result of sickle cell disease.
    aplastic crisis
  112. a portion of the pons that assists in creat-ing longer, slower respirations.
    apneustic center
  113. prolonged gasping inspirations followed by extremely short, ineffective expirations; associ-ated with brainstem insult.
    apneustic respirations
  114. normal, genetically programmed cell death.
    apoptosis
  115. an unexpected sudden episode of color change, tone change, or apnea that requires mouth- to- mouth resuscitation or vigorous stimulation.
    apparent life-threatening event (ALTE)
  116. the part of the skeleton compris-ing the upper and lower extremities.
    appendicular skeleton
  117. a neurologic impairment in which the brain is inter-mittently unable to carry out the command for speech or other tasks.
    apraxia
  118. the type of tissue that binds skin to underly-ing organs and fi lls in spaces between muscles.
    areolar tissue
  119. the lack of a cardiac rhythm; asystole.
    arrhythmia
  120. a pathologic condition in which the arte-rial walls become thickened and inelastic.
    arteriosclerosis
  121. a localized reaction involving vascu-lar infl ammation in response to an igg- mediated allergic response.
    arthus reaction
  122. the locations where two or more bones meet;
    articulations

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