LANGUAGE ART 12

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shockwave
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LANGUAGE ART 12
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2014-03-21 01:31:11
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LANGUAGE ART 12
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  1. Recognize an absolute phrase when you see one.
    An absolute phrase combines a noun and a participle with any accompanying modifiers or objects. The pattern looks like this:

    noun + participle + optional modifier(s) and/or object(s)

    An absolute may precede, follow, or interrupt the main clause.

    Please notice that in every case the absolute phrase provides some sort of information that works to put the whole sentence or idea in context.

    Please also notice that the absolute phrases themselves do NOT contain verbs, nor are they connected to the main sentence with a conjunction.
  2. Recognize a participle phrase when you see one. DEFINE IT.
    IT will begin with a present or past participle.

    • present -ing.
    •  regular past participle -ed.

    Irregular past participles, unfortunately, conclude in all kinds of ways.

    a participle phrase will often include objects and/or modifiers that complete the thought.

    Function as adjectives, adding description to the sentence. DON'T MIX UP WITH GERUNDS!!!

    The horse trotting up to the fence hopes that you have an apple or carrot.

    The water drained slowly in the pipe clogged with dog hair.

    • Eaten by mosquitoes, we wished that we had made hotel, not campsite, reservations.
  3. Recognize an adjective clause when you see one. DEFINE IT!
    • An adjective clause (adjectival or relative clause) will meet three requirements:
    • First, it will contain a subject and verb.
    • Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why].

    • Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions What kind? How many? or Which one?
    • The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns:

    relative pronoun or adverb + subject + verb

    relative pronoun as subject + verb

    • That bounced across the kitchen floor
    • That = relative pronoun functioning as subject; bounced = verb.

    An adjective clause does not express a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone as a sentence. To avoid writing a fragment, you must connect each adjective clause to a main clause.
  4. Recognize a subordinate conjunction when you see one. DEFINE IT!
    SUB. CON IS THE WORD THAT IS PART OF THE SUB. CLAUSE.

    The subordinate conjunction has two jobs.

    First, it provides a necessary transition between the two ideas in the sentence. This transition will indicate a time, place, or cause and effect relationship.

    The second job of the subordinate conjunction is to reduce the importance of one clause so that a reader understands which of the two ideas is more important.

    The more important idea belongs in the main clause, the less important in the clause introduced by the subordinate conjunction.

    • SOME OF THEM ARE:
    • AFTER ONCE UNTIL WHILE WHETHER WHERE THAT UNLESS ALTHOUGH BECOME BEFORE IF  SINCE  
  5. Recognize an adverb clause when you see one. DEFINE IT!
    First, it will contain a subject and verb.

    You will also find a subordinate conjunction that keeps the clause from expressing a complete thought.

    • Finally, you will notice that the clause answers one of these three adverb questions:
    • How? When? or Why?

    • FYI: subordinate conjunctions are words like after, if, because, unless, although, when. 
    • They transition between the two ideas in the sentence. This transition will indicate a time, place, or cause and effect relationship.

    EX:Tommy scrubbed the bathroom tile until his arms ached.

    How did Tommy scrub? Until his arms ached.    (an adverb clause.)
  6. DEFINE HOW Words which are plurals.
    For example, the plural of match is matches.

    • a) If the plural involves no more syllables, add -s.
    • b) If the plural involves one more syllable, add -es.

  7. WHAT IS THE RULES FOR ADDING A SUFFIX TO  A WORD?

    If the word ends with a single vowel and then a consonant, and the last syllable of the word is accented, then double the final consonant and affix the suffix.





    • Example: confer is changed to conferred
    • Example: occur is changed to occurring
  8. NAME THE 3 POINTS OF VIEW IN WRITING.
    • first person (I or we)
    • USE WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT YOURSELF OR YOURSELF TO OTHERS. 

    • second person (you/yours) 
    • Use the second-person point of view to address the reader


    • third person (he, she, it, or they).
    • Also: THEY    THEM     THEIR/THEIRS
  9. Recognize a subordinate clause when you see one. DEFINE IT!!

    A subordinate clause—also called a dependent clause—will begin with a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun and will contain both a subject and a verb. This combination of words will not form a complete sentence. It will instead make a reader want additional information to finish the thought.
  10. WHAT ARE THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS?
    • that
    • which
    • whichever
    • who
    • whoever
    • whom
    • whose
    • whosever
    • whomever
  11. WAS VS WERE
    HOW TO USE EACH?
    • THEY ARE THE PAST OF THE VERB "TO BE"
    • WAS: (SINGULAR) I, HE, SHE, IT, YOU
    • WERE: (PLURAL) WE, THEY, YOU 

    NOTE YOU IS BOTH. 

    • There is one exception here, we never use the form “If I was you” , even in informal situations.
    • We always say “If I were you”.
  12. Choose the sentence that expresses the thought most clearly and effectively and that has no errors in structure.

    HOW TO WORK THIS?
    Choice B has the modifier “While looking for the vandals” in position for describing what the police were doing. The other choices contain a separation of subject from the rest of the sentence or misplaced modifier.

    B) While looking for the vandals, the police found evidence of a burglary that had not been reported.

    THE TAKE HOME ON THIS TO REMEMBER THAT YOU SHOW LOOK FOR WORDS/ PHRASES THAT MODIFY. 
  13. I OR ME
    WHAT'S THE SIMPLE TEST?
    Ask yourself what pronoun form you would use without adding the other person?

    • "Grandma left me her rocking chair"
    • (coming up with the correct form for the indirect object)

    And then, when you add the other person, don't change the form of the pronoun: 

    "Grandma left Jayden and me her rocking chair."

    • I IS SUBJECTIVE, 1ST PERSON.
    • ME IS OBJECTIVE, 1ST PERSON.
  14. DEFINE THE STANDARD PRONOUN CASES AND ALL THE SHIT THAT FOLLOWS.
  15. WE VS US
    WE SUBJECTIVE.  It is the subject of a sentence or when it renames the subject of a sentence.

    US OBJECTIVE. Direct object, an indirect object and the object of a preposition.


    • To ensure that you choose the correct pronoun, eliminate every word except the pronoun and the verb.
    • You should be left with a clause that still makes sense: “We cherish” vs. “us cherish.” The correct choice is obvious: “We cherish.”
  16. 4 RULES FOR ADDING -LY
  17. Dr. Cresta is one of those professors who do whatever it takes to get their point across to their students.

    OR 

    Dr. Cresta is one of those professors who does whatever it takes to get his point across to his students.
    DO.

    When "who" is followed by a verb in the middle of a sentence, look directly in front of "who" to decide whether to use a singular or plural verb after it. "Professors," not "Dr. Cresta," indicates using the plural verb "do."
  18. When Toni and him come over, we always have a great time.

    When Toni and him come over, we always have a great time.

    WHAT'S CORRECT?
    When Toni and he come over, we always have a great time.

    Explanation: We need a subject pronoun here so use "he."
  19. Between you and me, this class is a joke.

     Just between you and I, this class is a joke.

    WHAT'S CORRECT?
    Between you and me, this class is a joke.

    Explanation: "Between" is a preposition so the pronouns that follow are objects of the preposition. "Me" is an object case pronoun.
  20. The thoughts, which Ted presented at the meeting, were so worthwhile.

     The thoughts that Ted presented at the meeting were so worthwhile.
    The thoughts that Ted presented at the meeting were so worthwhile.

    Explanation: When the interrupting clause is essential, use "that," not "which." Do not use commas around essential clauses.
  21. The thoughts that Ted presented, which were about shifting national priorities, were well received.

    OR

    The thoughts that Ted presented, were well received.
    The thoughts that Ted presented, which were about shifting national priorities, were well received.

    Explanation: When a previous clause presents essential information and the next clause presents nonessential information, use "which" for the nonessential clause and surround it with commas.
  22.  Isn't it amazing how long that mime can remain completely stationary?

      Isn't it amazing how long that mime can remain completely stationery?
    Isn't it amazing how long that mime can remain completely stationary?

    Explanation: The "-ary" form means "immobile." The "-ery" form refers to paper.
  23. DEFINE Compliment  AND complement
    "Compliment" means "to praise"

    "complement" means "the completing part."
  24. DEFINE DESSERT AND DESERT
    • Here is a memory device for "dessert":
    • The double "s" is like extra sugar.
  25.  Ilana said she wanted to become an FBI agent when she grew up.

     Ilana said she wanted to become a FBI agent when she grew up.
    Ilana said she wanted to become an FBI agent when she grew up.

    Explanation: Use "an" when the pronunciation of the next word or acronym begins with a vowel sound. You would pronounce FBI, "ef be eye," so you are beginning with the "eh" sound.
  26. The meeting attendees were to express a preference among five cleanup plans.

    The meeting attendees were to express a preference between five cleanup plans.

    WHAT'S CORRECT?
    The meeting attendees were to express a preference among five cleanup plans.

    Explanation: With three or more, use "among," not "between".
  27.  To be a good billiards player, you've got to think further ahead than just the next shot.

    To be a good billiards player, you've got to think farther ahead than just the next shot.

    WHAT'S CORRECT?
    To be a good billiards player, you've got to think further ahead than just the next shot.

    Use "further" when you are not referring to physical distance. For physical distance, you may use "farther" or "further."
  28. T OR F

    Do not use a comma when the sentence starts with an independent clause followed by a dependent clause.
    TRUE
  29. We ask; therefore, that you keep this matter confidential.

    We ask, therefore, that you keep this matter confidential.

    WHAT'S CORRECT?
    We ask, therefore, that you keep this matter confidential.

    Explanation: In this sentence, "therefore" is not introducing an independent clause so it is an interrupter. Use commas to surround interrupters.
  30. Clothes are often made from synthetic material; for instance, rayon.

     Clothes are often made from synthetic material, for instance, rayon.

    WHAT'S CORRECT?
    Clothes are often made from synthetic material, for instance, rayon.

    Explanation: Use a comma before introductory words such as “namely, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., for instance” when they are followed by only one item. Use a comma after the introductory word.
  31.  I wanted a cup of coffee, not a glass of milk.

     I wanted a cup of coffee not a glass of milk.




    I wanted a cup of coffee, not a glass of milk.

    Explanation: Use a comma to separate contrasting parts of a sentence.

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