Path 342

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Path 342
2014-03-17 23:26:53
Neoplasia terminolgy
Neoplasia 1
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  1. Neoplasm
    • is a "new growth" composed of cells...
    • originally derived from normal tissues
    • that have undergone heritable genetic changes allowing them to become
    • relatively unresponsive to normal growth controls and to
    • expand beyond their normal anatomic boundaries
  2. 2 basic categories of neoplasms
    • Epithelial neoplasms
    • Mesenchymal neoplasms
  3. Mesenchymal neoplasms branch into...
    • Benign tissue: tissue-oma
    • and mallignant: tissue-sarcoma

    • Fat: lipoma, liposarcoma
    • Bone: osteoma, osteosarcoma, etc
  4. 5 basic epithelium types
    • Stratified squamous - skin
    • Transitional - bladder, urethra, ureter
    • Simple squamous - alveolar, blood vessels
    • Simple columnar or cuboidal - GIT
    • Psuedostratified columnar with cilia and goblet cells - trachea, nasal passage, bronchi
  5. Non-secretory, non absorptive "lining" epithelium
    Stratified squamous and transitional
  6. Secretory and/or absorptive epithelium
    Simple squmaous, simple columnar or cuboidal, and psuedostratified columnar with cilia and goblet cells
  7. Benign, non-glandular/non secretory
    Type of epithelium + papilloma
  8. Malignant, non-glandular/non secretory
    Type of epithelium + carcinoma
  9. Malignant, glandular/seretory
    organ + adenocarcinoma
  10. Benign, glandular/secretory
    Organ + adenoma
  11. Epithelial neoplasms (4)
    • Benign, non glandular/non secretory
    • Malignant, non glandular/non secretory
    • Benigan, glandular/secretory
    • Malignant, glandular/secretory
  12. Neural crest cells give raise to
    • nervous system
    • melanocytes
    • the adrenal medulla
  13. Melanocytic neoplasms
    • Benign: benign melanoma or melanocytoma
    • Malignant: malignant melanoma
  14. Adrenal medullary neoplasms
    • Pheochromocytoma
    • Benign: pheochromocytoma
    • Malignant: malignant pheochromocytoma
  15. Epithelia that produce mesenchymal neoplasms
    • Lining of:
    • blood and lymphatic vessels
    • serous cavities: peritoneum, pericardium, pleura
    • joints
  16. Round cells
    • Bone marrow derived migratory cells:
    • lymphocytes
    • plasma cells (pregnant B lymphocytes)
    • mast cells
    • histiocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells)
    • They're called round cause they're round!
  17. Lyphocyte
    Lymphoma or lymphosarcoma
  18. Plasma cell
    Plasma cell tumor
  19. Mast cell
    Mast cell tumor
  20. Macrophage and dendritic cells
    Histiocytic tumore
  21. Teratomas
    • common in gonads
    • Tumors that contain ecto-, meso- and endodermal elements all of which are neoplastic
  22. blastomas
    • Tumors of embryonic cells
    • Since embryonic cells are stem cells, these tumors can form various tissue components
  23. Non-neoplasia
    • Hematoma
    • Choristoma
    • Hamartoma
  24. Hematoma
    Get definition
  25. Choristoma
    Normal tissue in an abnormal location (hair growing from the tongue or cornea)
  26. Hamartoma
    A tumor-like malformation composed of tissue elements normally found at that site, but which are growing in a disorganized mass
  27. Benign
    • No metastasis
    • Slow, progressive expansion, rare mitotic figures, normal-appearing mitotic figures
    • No invasion, cohesive and expansile growth, capsule often present
    • Well differentiated appearance, structure similar to tissue or origin, little to no anaplasia
  28. Malignant
    • Frequent metastasis
    • Slow-to-rapid growth, erratic growth rate; mitotic figures often numerous; mitotic figures sometimes abnormal
    • Local invasion, infiltrative growth, usually no capsule
    • Usually some lack of differentiation, structure often atypical, variable degree of anaplasia
  29. Metastasis
    • change of place
    • Benign neoplasms DO NOT metastasize
  30. Mitotic figures
    • Are evidence of cell division
    • In general, the more there are, and the more bizarre they look, the more chance the neoplasm is malignant
  31. Differentiation
    • Well-differentiated: tumor cells are more variable in appearance then ones that it arose from, but still recognizable.
    • Poorly-differentiated: tumor cells are less easily recognized
    • Anaplastic: tumor cells have no resemblance to anything
  32. Anaplastic
    Tumore cells bear no resemblance to anything.  Their cell of origin cannot easily be determined.