thanatochemistry

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thanatochemistry
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2014-06-01 12:41:19
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  1. a group of chemicals used in addition to vascular and cavity embalming fluids; most are applied to the body surface
    accessory chemicals
  2. a substance that yields hydrogen or hydronium ions in aqueous solutions
    acid (arrhrenius)
  3. a substance that donates a proton
    acid (bronsted-lowry)
  4. a substance that accepts a pair of electrons
    acid (lewis)
  5. a wax-like material produced by saponification of body fat in a body burial in alkaline soil
    adipocere  (grave wax)
  6. an organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl ( -OH) group. the general formula for a mono-hydroxy alcohol is R -OH, where R is a hydrocarbon group
    alcohol
  7. an organic compound containing one or more -CHO group. the general formula is R -CHO, where the R is a hydrocarbon group
    aldehyde
  8. the sugar in which the functional groups are hydroxyl groups ( -OH) and an aldehyde group (-CHO)
    aldose
  9. pertaining to any member of one of the two major groups of organic compounds, those having straight or branch chains structures
    aliphatic
  10. ___ properties are those that can be observed w/o altering the chemical composition of a substance
    physical
  11. taste, color, and odor are examples of ____ physical properties
    qualitative
  12. the state in which matter exists (solid, liquid, gas) are ___ physical properties
    qualitative
  13. physical properties that can be measured are ___ physical
    quantitative
  14. ___ is a measured (quantitative) physical property which explains the ability of sugar to dissolve in water.
    solubility
  15. if a scientist wants to measure the relationship btwn the mass and volume of a gas or solid, a calculation is used to measure the ___
    density
  16. to calculate the volume of a solid that is not soluble in water, scientists use ___ of water to gather data
    displacement
  17. ____ _____ is used to compare the density of water to the density of another substance
    specific gravity
  18. ____ properties are characteristics that can be observed when a substance is interacting with other substances resulting in a change of chemical composition
    chemicals
  19. physical changes do not yield a new substance

    t/f
    t
  20. chemicals changes from a new substance with new chemical and physical properties

    t/f
    t
  21. the decomposition of human remains is an example of a physical change

    t/f
    f
  22. chemical changes includes the rusting of iron, creating oxides, the burning of paper, and the souring milk

    t/f
    t
  23. hydrolysis is responsible for the decomposition of human remains

    t/f
    t
  24. another name for the production of oxides as determined by the burning of paper, is combustion

    t/f
    t
  25. the amount of heat required to convert 1 gram of a solid to a liquid state is the melting point

    t/f
    f
  26. vaporation is the process of changing a liquid to a gas

    t/f
    t
  27. the atmospheric pressure is measured in units of millimeters of mercury

    t/f
    t
  28. one atmosphere is equal to 1 torr

    t/f
    f
  29. methods of converting a gas to a liquid include decreasing the temperature of increasing the pressure

    t/f
    t
  30. as one travels from sea level to a mountain top the atmospheric pressure increase as the air becomes more dense

    t/f
    f
  31. the volume of gases are altered by heating and cooling

    t/f
    t
  32. solid states of matter have the most order so they are said to have the least entropy

    t/f
    f
  33. when placed in a container liquids maintain their own volume and take the shape of the container

    t/f
    t
  34. when the pressure on a gas in increased the volume decrease

    t/f
    t
  35. homogeneous mixtures are characterized by non-uniform properties

    t/f
    f
  36. elements are the basic units or matter

    t/f
    f
  37. water is an example of a compound

    t/f
    t
  38. heterogenous mixtures do not have uniform properties throughout the mixture

    t/f
    t
  39. any process in which heat is absorbed is called an____ reaction
    endothermic
  40. 3 properties of gasses are
    • compress
    • expansive
    • diffusibility
  41. any reaction in which heat is liberated is called a ____ reaction
    exothermic
  42. Charles Law/Boyles Law states that if the ____ on a gas remains constant, the ____ is directly proportional to the temperature expressed in Kelvin
    pressure and volume
  43. of the three common states of matter ____ contains the most energy and ____ contain the least amount of energy
    gas and soild
  44. the condition of no net change in the liquid level (as noted by separation via cellular membrane) is represented as a stat of _____
    equilibrium
  45. ___ can be formed by varying proportions of their components
    mixtures
  46. the 3 types of matter are
    • solid
    • liquid
    • gas
  47. what indicates two or more elements chemically united in definite proportions by mass
    a compound
  48. substances that can be decomposed or separated into the original constituent are
    compounds
  49. what can be separated by physical means
    mixtures
  50. anything which has mass and occupies space is
    matter
  51. two or more substances that are not chemically combined are classified as a(n)
    mixture
  52. what physical states of matter contain the most energy
    gas
  53. inorganic chemistry involves substances classified as
    • acids
    • bases
    • salts
    • oxides
  54. what represents the normal temperature of the human body
    °37 centigrade
  55. the origin of chemistry dates back to ancient Egypt, and the etymology stems from
    • chemia
    • alchemy
  56. when studying the nature of matter scientists focus on what criteria
    • composition
    • forces
    • properties
  57. a chemical change does not cause change in the chemical composition of material

    t/f
    f
  58. potential Energy is the energy of motion

    t/f
    f
  59. matter is anything that possesses mass and occupies space

    t/f
    t
  60. a 2000 ton ship traveling at 5 Km/hr has less inertia than 5Kg rock traveling at 90 Km/hr

    t/f
    f
  61. normal human body temperature is 98.7 degrees Centigrade/Celsius

    t/f
    f
  62. one calorie is the amount of heat necessary to raise 1g of water, 1 degree Celsius at 15 degrees celsius

    t/f
    t
  63. scale of measuring temperature include the following scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit, kelvin, and calorie

    t/f
    f
  64. 1000 ml is equal to 1L

    t/f
    t
  65. 1mg is equal to 0.001g

    t/f
    t
  66. 1km is equal to 0.001m

    t/f
    f
  67. using the Standard Units Of Measurements dictates that length is measured in kilometers

    t/f
    f
  68. °98F is equal to ___ degrees celsius
    37
  69. °32C is equal to ___ degrees F
    90
  70. decomposing human remains is an example of a chemical change

    t/f
    t
  71. organic chemistry is the study of compounds produced by living organisms

    t/f
    f
  72. organic chemistry is the study of compounds which usually contain carbon

    t/f
    t
  73. mass is the quantity of matter present in an object

    t/f
    t
  74. inertia is the tendency of a body to resist a change in motion

    t/f
    t
  75. in the Celsius scale, zero degrees is the melting/freezing point of water and 212 degrees is the boiling point of water

    t/f
    f
  76. the nucleus of an atom is composed of small, dense particles  called
    • protons
    • neutrons
  77. electrons are changed particles that surround the nucleus and have a ____ charge
    negative
  78. the ___ ____ provides identity to the atom and is also the # of protons in the nucleus.
    atomic #
  79. the atomic symbol for potassium is
    K
  80. Group 8A element on the periodic chart are known as
    noble gasses
  81. substances that can be decomposed or separated into singular substances are
    ions
  82. A ____ ____ is formed when two like atoms join together chemically, as seen with Hydrogen, Nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, iodine, and bromine
    diatomic molecules
  83. what is the result of two or more chemically united in definite proportions by mass
    a compound
  84. a molecule of a compound must contain at least___ different elements
    two
  85. the most common form of oxygen is
    molecular oxygen O2
  86. the rate of diffusion is ___ by a decrease in temperature
    decreased
  87. fundamental types of matter that cannot be converted into other kinds by ordinary chemical means are
    elements
  88. the nucleus of an atom has a negative change

    t/f
    f
  89. electrons balance the charge of the nucleus by providing a negative charge

    t/f
    t
  90. protons are particles containing a positive charge

    t/f
    t
  91. an atom is the smallest particle of an element

    t/f
    t
  92. neutrons provide a buffering action in a nucleus by separating the positive charge from the protons

    t/f
    t
  93. an atom is known to known to have a positive charge

    t/f
    f
  94. an atom is known to have a negative charge

    t/f
    f
  95. a neutral atom has the same # of protons and electrons

    t/f
    t
  96. isotopes are atoms of the same atomic # and have slightly differing masses due to varying # of neutrons

    t/f
    t
  97. when an atom gains or losses electrons, during a chemical reaction, the remaining particles are called ions

    t/f
    t
  98. the atomic symbol for mercury is Mc

    t/f
    f
  99. the atomic symbol for sodium is Na

    t/f
    t
  100. each symbol from the periodic table represents what
    name of one atom of the element
  101. the top # is the atomic # which is ___
    the ttl # of protons or electrons
  102. the bottom # represents the atomic mass which is what
    the # of protons + the # of neutrons
  103. each symbol of the periodic table represents the name of one ___ of a(n) ____
    atom of an element
  104. the ____ ____ represents the ttl # of protons or electrons of an element
    atomic #
  105. ___ #s are used to represent the # of electrons lots, gained, or shared in a chemical change
    oxidation
  106. balanced chemical formulas have a net charged of ___
    zero
  107. hydroxide (OH-1) is a ___ ion
    polyatomic ion
  108. the formula representing carbon dioxide contains a subscript of the # ___
    2
  109. ___ are abbreviations of compounds
    formulas
  110. adding electricity to water, yielding the products H2 and O2, is an example of a ____reaction
    decomposition
  111. the four types of inorganic compounds are ___ ___ ___ ___
    • acid
    • base
    • salt
    • oxide
  112. the measure of the gravitational pull on an object
    weight
  113. a type of lipid formed form the combination of unsaturated and/or saturated fatty acid and high-molecular-weight alcohols (not glycerol)
    wax
  114. having the quality of being easily converted at a relatively low temp from the liquid to the gaseous state
    volatile
  115. the resistance that a liquid exhibits to the flow of one layer over another over another arising from the molecular attraction btwn the molecules of a liquid
    viscosity
  116. liquids that serve as solvents for the numerous ingredients incorporated into embalming fluids
    vehicles
  117. the physical change from a liquid to a gas
    vaporization
  118. a gas, especially the gaseous form of a substance that at ordinary temps is a liquid or solid
    vapor
  119. the neutralization product of formaldehyde by ammonia
    urotropin  (methenamine, C6H12N4)
  120. a solution containing less of the solute than can be held in solution by the solvent
    unsaturated solution
  121. an organic compound that has one or more double or triple bonds btwn two carbon atoms
    unsaturated hydrocarbon
  122. an expression of the fixed ratio btwn carbon and hydrogen in hydrocarbon
    typed formula
  123. homogeneous mixture of two or more substances able to pass through a semi-permeable membrane. the size of the solute particles is less than one nanometer
    true solution
  124. an alcohol having 3 hydroxyl groups,
    exp: glycerol
    trihydroxy alcohol
  125. type of lipid that is formed by the reaction of three fatty acid molecules and glycerol. also known as triglycerides or neutral fats
    triacylglyceride
  126. a poisonous substance produced by higher plants, animals, or pathogenic bacteria that is toxic (poisonous) to humans
    toxin
  127. a chemical compound similar to an alcohol in which the oxygen of the hydroxyl group is replaced by a sulfur atom resulting in the sulfhydyl group (-SH)
    thioalcohol (mercaptan)
  128. the study of those physical and chemical changes in the human body that are casued by the process of death
    thanatochemistry
  129. temporary hardness can be removed by boiling and is due to the presence of the bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium
    temporary hardness of water
  130. means by which heat and cold are expressed: means to measure how hot or cold a substance is
    temperature scale
  131. abbreviation for an element
    symbol
  132. a mixture of a solute and a solvent in which the size of the solute particles is greater than 100 nanometers. particles of solute do not pass through filters or membranes
    suspension
  133. (surface tension reducer/ wetting agents/ penetrating agents)- chemicals that will reduce the molecular cohesion of a liquid and thereby enable it to flow through smaller apertures
    sufactants
  134. the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and tends to minimize surface area
    surface tension
  135. additional germicides adding to embalming fluids
    supplementary germicides
  136. the material upon which an enzyme works
    substrate
  137. a physical change of state during which a substance change directly from a solid to a gas
    sublimation
  138. a chemical formula showing the spatial arrangement of the atoms and the linkage of the every atom
    structural formula
  139. a physical property of matter (solid, liquid, or gas); condition of the physical composition of a substance at a given temperature and pressure.
    state of matter
  140. a ratio of densities with water as the standard
    specific gravity
  141. a substance that does the dissolving in a solution; the component of a solution present in a greater amount
    solvent
  142. the substance of dissolving
    solvation
  143. a homogeneous mixture of one or more substance (solutes) dissolved in a sufficient quantity of solvent.
    solution
  144. a substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution; the component of a solution present in a lesser amount
    solute
  145. the measure of how well two substances mix
    solubility
  146. the conversion of a liquid or gas into a solid form
    solidification
  147. the condensed state of matter having a definite shape and volume
    solid
  148. a compound whose hydrolytic products are fatty acids and alcohols
    simple lipid
  149. the injection taking place after the initial, primary, or first injection
    secondary injection
  150. an alcohol in which the hydroxyl (-OH) group is attached to a carbon that is attached to two other carbons
    secondary alcohol
  151. a solution containing all of the solute the solvent is able to hold at a certain temperature
    saturated solution
  152. a hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds
    saturated hydrocarbon
  153. the reaction btwn a fat and a strong base to produce glycerol and the salt of a fatty acid (soup)
    saponification
  154. any group of substances that result from the reaction btwn acids and bases other than water
    salt
  155. Supplemental fluid, used with the regular atrial solution, whose purpose is to retain body moisture, retard dehydration, and restore  natural color
    restorative fluids
  156. a decrease in oxidation number; a gain of electrons; the combination of a substance with hydrogen
    reduction
  157. surface-active agents that are generally used for disinfection of skin, oral and nasal cavities, as well as instruments
    quaternary ammonium compounds
  158. the decomposition of proteins by the action of enzymes from anaerobic bacteria
    putrefaction
  159. a subatomic particle normally found in the nucleus of an atom. it has a relative mass of 1 amu and an electrical charge of +1
    proton
  160. a biological compound that is a polymer of many amino acids
    protein
  161. characteristics by which substances may be identified
    properties
  162. an alcohol in which the hydroxyl (-OH)group is attached to a carbon that is attached to no more than one other carbon
    Primary alcohol
  163. the force per unit area exerted on a material
    pressure
  164. components of embalming solutions used to inactivate the active chemical groups of proteins and amino acids resulting in the inhibition of decomposition
    preservatives
  165. fluids designed to clear the vascular system of blood and enable the arterial solution to distribute with greater facility
    pre- injection fluids (primary)
  166. a deposit of an insoluble or very slightly soluble solid substance in solution
    precipitate
  167. energy stored
    potential energy
  168. a polymer made by linking together a # of simple sugar molecules. starches and cellulose are example
    polysaccharide
  169. the linking together of monomers or basic chemical units to form a polymer
    polymerization
  170. a large molecule made by linking together a # of monomers, or basic chemical units
    polymer
  171. those alcohols having more than one hydroxyl group
    polyhydroxy alcohol
  172. a group of atoms that acts as a unit and possesses a charge
    polyatomic ion
  173. any substance that imperils health or life when absorbed into the body
    poison
  174. properties of a substance that are observed w/o a charge in chemical composition, which include color, odor, taste, solubility, density, hardness, melting point, and boiling point
    physical properties
  175. a change in the form or state of matter w/o any change in chemical composition
    physical change
  176. the measure of hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
    pH (potential of hydrogen)
  177. water hardness that can not be removed by boiling, the addition of chemicals must be used. permanent hardness is caused by the chloride and sulfate salts of calcium and magnesium
    permanent hardness of water
  178. the tabular arrangement of the elements in order of increasing atomic #. the arrangement allows the columns of elements to represent the periodic recurrence of similar properties
    periodic table
  179. a bond formed form a dehydration reaction btwn the amino acid with the carboxyl (organic acid) group on another amino acid
    peptide bond
  180. a 5 carbon sugar molecule
    pentose
  181. a method of expressing low concentrations; 1ppm is equivalent to 1 milligram per liter
    parts per million (ppm)
  182. a compound consisting of oxygen combined with only one other element
    oxide
  183. a # used to represent the # of electrons lost, gained, or shared in a chemical charged
    oxidation #
  184. the combination of a substance with oxygen; an increase in oxidation #; a loss of electrons
    oxidation
  185. the passage of pure solvent from a solution of lesser solute concentration to one of greater solute concentration when the two solutions are separated by a semi-permeable membrane that selectively prevents the passage of solute molecules. the membrane is permeable to the solvent
    osmosis
  186. the branch of chemistry that deals with certain carbon-containing compounds
    organic chemistry
  187. a common name for a triacylglycerol that is a liquid at room temperature and contains a high % of unsaturated fatty acids
    oil
  188. a very dense, small, positively charged center of an atom that contains most of the mass of the atom in the form of protons and neutrons
    nucleus
  189. any element that is not a metal. nonmetals tend to form negative ions
    nonmetal
  190. a neutral subatomic particle with a mass similar to that of a proton. it is normally found in the nucleus of an atom
    neutron
  191. the reaction of an acid and a base to produce a salt and water
    neutralization
  192. the simplest form of a carbohydrate consisting of a single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose. it cannot be hydrolyzed to a smaller carbohydrate molecule
    monosaccharide
  193. an alcohol with only one hydroxyl group
    monohydroxy  alcohol
  194. a charged entity consisting of only a single atom
    monatomic ion
  195. the smallest unit of a compound that can exist alone; an aggregation of atoms, specially a chemical of two or more atoms that form a special substance
    molecule
  196. a chemical formula expressing the # of atoms of each element present in a molecule of a substance, w/o indicating how they are linked
    molecular formula
  197. chemicals for which there may be greatly varying demands predicated upon the type of embalming, the environment, and the arterial fluid to be used
    modifying agents
  198. a combination of two or more substances not chemically united and NOT in definite proportion by mass
    mixture
  199. the smallest dose of a poison (or radiation) on record that produces death
    minimum lethal dose (MLD)
  200. the standard metric unit for length
    meter
  201. an element marked by luster, malleability, ductility, and conductivity of electricity and heat.  metallic elements tend to form positive ions
    metal
  202. the change state from a solid to a liquid
    melting
  203. the quantity of matter present in an object
    mass
  204. anything that has mass and occupies space
    matter
  205. standard unit of volume in the metric sustem
    leter
  206. a substance that flows readily but does not tend to expand indefinitely
    liquid
  207. conversion of a solid or gas into a liquid form as a result of a physical or chemical change
    liquefaction
  208. a condensed version of the structural formula, written all on one line and demonstrating the relationship of the substituent group in the molecule
    line formula
  209. the amount of a poison (or radiation) that will kill 50% of the group to which it has been administered
    lethal dose 50% (LD50)
  210. in any chemical or physical change, mass is neither created nor destroyed but merely changed in form
    law of conservation of mass
  211. in any chemical or physical change, energy is neither created nor destroyed but merely transformed from one form to another
    law of conservation or energy
  212. energy of a body by virtue of its motion
    kinetic energy
  213. 1000 grams; the basic unit of mass in the metric system
    kilogram
  214. a sugar whose functional group are hydroxyl (-OH) group and a ketone (C=O) group
    ketose
  215. any class of organic compounds containing the carbonyl group (C=O) whose carbon atom is joined to two other carbon atoms; the carbonyl group occurs w/i the carbon chain
    ketone
  216. the base SI unit of temperature equal to 1/273.15 the absolute temperature of the triple of water
    kelvin
  217. a solution having an equal concentration of dissolved solute as the solution to which it is compared
    isotonic solution
  218. the possession by two or more distinct compounds of the same molecular formula, each molecule having the same # of atoms of the element, but in different arrangement
    isomerism
  219. the dissociation of a substance in solution into ions
    ionization
  220. an atonic or molecular species with a positive (cation) or negative (anion) electrical charge; an atom of an element or group of atoms acting as one unit that has lost or gained an electron(s)
    ion

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