MSA Lessons 1-3
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MSA Lessons 1-3
MSA Lessons 1-3
Name the three types of primary cells found in bones
What is the role of Osteoblasts?
Synthesise new bone matrix
What is the role of Osteoclasts?
Resorption of bone (from monocytes)
What is the role of Osteocytes?
Help maintain homeostasis (mature osteoblasts)
Bone is covered by a layer of connective tissue called the...
The skeleton can be broken down into three main sections.
Axial Skeleton (down the middle)
Appendicular Skeleton Further broken down to
: Upper extremities & Lower extremities
Name the Axial Skeleton
Forms the longitudinal axis of the body and is made up of the skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs & hyoid
Name the appendicular skeleton; upper extremities
Scapula & clavicle of the upper limb (shoulder) girdle; humerus of the arm; radius & ulna of the forearm; carpel bones of the wrist; metacarpals of the palm; and Phalanges of the fingers.
Name the appendicular skeleton; lower extremities
Hipbones (coxal bones) of the lower limb (pelvic) girdle; femur of the thigh; tibia and fibula of the leg; tarsal bones of the ankle; metatarsals of the foot; phalanges of the toes.
Name the 3 parts of a long bone.
Describe the diaphysis
Tubular shaft of bone
Describe the Epiphysis
Knobby part at either end of the bone
Describe the Metaphysis
Epiphyseal (growth) plate (line) & adjacent bone trabeculae of spongy bone tissue.
What is the tissue inside the medullary cavity?
The marrow cavity bone marrow (Found in the main shaft of long bones)
What are the 5 functions of muscle?
Motion of a part of the body
Maintenance of posture
Heat production (thermogenesis)
Enhances venous return via muscle pumps.
What are the 5 functions of bone?
Balancing, movement, standing, grasping of objects & the manipulation of objects.
What does Ossification mean?
The formation of bone.
What are two main types of ossification:
Intramembranous ossification bone is formed from mesenchymal tissue, which is a network of connective tissue (inside)
Endochondrial ossification bone developed by replacing cartilage model (outside)
Describe a long bone
Length is greater than its width with an epiphysis at each end.
Give an example for a long bone |
Femur, humerus, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges
Describe a Short bone
Similar dimensions in length and width.
Give an example of a short bone
Carpal (wrist) and tarsal (ankle) bones.
Describe a Flat bone
Thin and curved
Give an example of a flat bone
Ribs, scapulae, sternum, pelvic bone and skull bones.
Describe Irregular bones
Do not fit neatly into any category.
Give an example of irregular bones
Vertebrae, hyoid, facial bones and hip bones.
Describe Sesamoid bones
Small bones embedded within certain tendons.
Provide an example of a sesamoid bone
Patella and pisiform bone.
Describe accessory bones
Commonly found in feet and skull
Give an example of accessory bones
Sutural and Wormain bones.
What molecule is responsible (used for fuel) for movement.
Calcium & ATP
Why does rigormortis occur?
Chemical changes in muscles after death causing the body to become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate. It is due to depletion of oxygen and calcium ions used for making ATP.
Calcium released into the sarcoplasm as a result of a motor neuron impulse binds to what,
and results in what?
The calcium allows the actin to bind with the myosin which pulls the actin and causes the sarcomere to shorten & muscle to shorten.
Sliding filament theory
What does ATP bind to and what is the result?
ATP binds to the myosin and disengages from the actin so the muscle can return to its original position.
Why do we eat food (besides from being hungry!)
To provide our body with fuel to be used to produce energy and movement.
What is an antagonistic pair?
The name given to both sets of opposing muscles, for example biceps/triceps or quadriceps and hamstrings.
What are Sarcomeres?
Compartments along myofibrils separated by Z discs. They are made up of alternating thick and thin myofilaments called I-bands and A-bands.
What is a Sarcolemma?
Plasma membrane surrounding each muscle fibre which surrounds a quality of cytoplasm called sarcoplasm.
What is a Foramen?
An opening through which blood vessels, nerves or ligament pass.
What is a Fossa?
A depression in or on a bone
What is a ligament?
A short band of touch, flexible fibrous connective tissue which connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.
What is a tendon?
A cord of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to the periosteum of a bone.
10. Put these muscle structures in order from largest to smallest: Myofiber, Muscle belly,
sarcomere, fascicle, myofibril, myofilament.
Muscle belly, Fasicle, myofiber, Myofibril, sarcomere, Myofilament
Primary mover. Bulk of force
Helps the action
Motor nerve + muscle fiber
Fixators and Stabilises
Reduce unwanted movement (Core muscle)
Muscle getting longer. Lowering, gravity assisted
Muscle getting shorter. Raising weight or gravity resisted
Muscle not moving.
Bring forward (horizontal flexion & extension)
Bring straight back
Rotate lower arm outwards without moving elbow or shoulder
Longer under tension
Shorter under tension
Doesnt move under tension
Lats little helper
Teres Major - Connects to bottom of scapular to the anterior of humerus
What is the primary action of the rhomboid major?
Retraction (adducts) and fixes the scapula
What is the primary action of the sternocleidomastoid?
Lateral flexion of the head. Alone will rotate the neck to the opposite side. Together with the other SCM) will flex the neck.
What is the primary action of the biceps brachii?
Flexes the elbow and supinates the radioulnar joinet (forearm)
What is the primary action of the triceps brachii?
Extends the elbow
What is the primary action of the brachioradialis?
Flexes the elbow (esp in the neutral grip ie the hammering muscle).
What is the primary action of the coracobrachialis?
Adducts and flexes the shoulder
Name the 3 hip bones from posteriorly to anteriorly
Ilium, ischium and pubis.
Which of these do you not find in Osseous tissue: Matrix, inorganic salts, collagenous fibres, periosteum.
In endochondrial ossification what does bone replace?
A cartilage model
What are the primary hip flexors?
The iliacus, the psoas major and the rectus femoris
What is a sarcolemma?
the cell membrane of a myofiber
What is a sarcomere?
The smallest functional unit of a muscle