History Chapter 1
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History Chapter 1
World History Chapter 1; The Birth of Civilization
earliest use of stone tools from 1 million years ago to about 10,000 B.C.E.
people were hunters, fishers, and gatherers
learned to make and control fire
the sum total of the ways of living built up by a group and passed on from one generation to another.
includes courtship and child rearing practices, material things (tools, clothing) and ideas and beliefs
10,000 years ago, Middle East began to change from a nomadic hunter-gatherer culture to agricultural one
Productive animals sheep/goats, food crops were first domesticated
invention of pottery
5000 B.C.- 500 B.C.
Tigris and Euphrates rivers
created a hierarchy of larger and smaller settlements
new technologies like smelting and manufacture of metal tools and weapons
different classes of people developed
characteristics of the form of human culture; includes urbanism, technological industrial and social change, long distance trade and new methods of symbolic communication
Near East and eastern Mediterranean
someone discovered how to combine tin and cooper to make a stronger and more useful material
Who were the Sumerians?
built large cities (over 100,000)
created first sophisticated system of writing
created the wheel
designed a gravity flow irrigation system
NOT members of Semitic language
arrived 5000 B.C.
Who was Sargon the Great?
first ruler of Mesopotamia
brought Mesopotamia under single rule in 2300 B.C.
spread Sumerian culture throughout fertile crescent; trade, religion, writing
dramatic change in subsistence, settlement, technology and population around 10,000 B.C.
What was cuneiform?
wedge shaped marks made on clay tablets with a cut-reed stylus
created by Sumerians
expanded on pictography
earliest known system of writing
primitive form of writing
What contributions did the Sumerians make?
Mathematics; based on units of 60 and its divisors
Chronology; lunar calendar, measured seasons, close year calculations
What religion did Sumerians practice?
polytheism; various gods
Ziggurats; build temples to please gods, no code of ethics, rituals and sacrifices, Epic of Gilgamesh
What was the code of Hammurabi?
laws of Babylonia/Mesopotamian society 1792-1750 B.C.
punishment depended on social class; usually eye for an eye
government is impartial referee for citizens
stated punishments; upheld right to compensation
What were the social classes of Mesopotamia?
Describe the Government
Early on Theocracy; ruled by gods and priests of city-states
Later kings ruled the region, beginning with Sargon the Great
How did Mesopotamia decline?
1500 B.C. conquered by the Hittites, then Assyrians in 1200 B.C. and finally by Persians in 500 B.C.
becomes center of Islamic World
becomes "prosperous" again in 20th century
What factors lead to the downfall of Mesopotamia?
What was Egypt's geography?
River civilization- The Nile River
surrounded/protected by desert and Red Sea marshes making it isolated
2 sections; Upper and Lower Egypt
What are some characteristics of the Nile River?
flows out of Lake Victoria; south to north into Mediterranean
valley is lush, green
floods more gently than Tigris and Euphrates
means of travel, transportation of commerce and agriculture
floods made soil fertile for crops
What were the periods of Egyptian history?
3100-2660 B.C. Archaic;
2660-2180 B.C. Old Kingdom;
Construction of Pyramids
2180-2080 B.C. First Intermediate;
2080-1640 B.C Middle Kingdom;
recovery and political stability
1640-1570 B.C. Second Intermediate;
Creation of Egyptian Empire , Akhenaten’s religious policy
1100-653 B.C Third Intermediate
When were the pyramids built?
After the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, during the Old Kingdom Period
What are some characteristics of the pyramids of Giza?
• Commissioned by King Khufu (Cheops)
• Covers 13 acres
• Orig. 480 feet high, now 450 ft.
• Sphinx– strength and wisdom of both man & beast
• 2600-2100 B.C.
a king who was also a god in Egypt
What were hieroglyphs?
sacred carvings by Egyptians
symbols that convey meaning through a series of pictures that represent sounds
What was the Rosetta Stone?
was the key to deciphering hieroglyphs;
work of French linguist/archaeologist Jean Francois Champollion, 1822
was called Father of Egyptology
What religion did Egyptians practice?
over 3,000 gods
Chief gods were sun gods Amon and Ra, later combined into one god
Isis– goddess of the Nile and fertility
Osiris, the god of the afterlife
Horus, son of Osiris and Isis– the pharaoh
What did Egyptians believe in the Afterlife?
believed in continuation of life on Earth
judgement fo the "ka" the soul/spirit of the person on earth ventured into the afterlife
Who try to revolutionize religion in Egypt?
What did Pharaoh Akhenaton try to do?
tried to turn Egypt to a monotheism culture
In opposition to the priests
Claims that the god, Aton, was his father, and that Aton, not Amon (Amon-Ra) was to be worshipped
Under King Tutankhamen (boy pharaoh) what happened?
Egypt returned to polytheism
Compare/Contrast Near River Civilizations:
Subject to violent change
Crossroad where civ. and barbarians met
Melting pot, blending of newcomers, beliefs, new ideas
Stable for much of its history
Protected by natural barriers
Isolated, except for trade, false sense of superiority
What was Assyria?
Vast empire from Tigris to Central Europe
powerful with armies under King Tiglath-Pileser III, and Sargon II (ca. 750 B.C.)
How did Assyrians decline?
Assyrians fall around 612 B.C.
Babylonians fought against the Assyrians under Babylonian leader, Nebuchadnezzar
What factors contributed to the rise of Isareal?