cell bio exam II set III

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Author:
lacythecoolest
ID:
266945
Filename:
cell bio exam II set III
Updated:
2014-03-18 22:40:43
Tags:
cell biology
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cell biology
Description:
from slides
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  1. Intermediate filament monomers:
    a-helical
  2. Intermediate filament Assembly:
    • * a-helix
    • ->coiled-coil dimer
    • ->staggered tetramer
    • ->filament
  3. Intermediate filament types
    • * Cytoplasmic:
    • -keratin-
    • -neurofilaments
    • -vitmentin
    • *Nuclear
    • -nuclear lamins
    • cytoskeletal
  4. Intermediate filament location of keratin
    epitheal
  5. Intermediate filament location of neurofilaments
    nerve cells
  6. Intermediate filament location of vitmentin
    • connective tissue
    • mucle
    • glial
  7. Functions of the Intermediate Filament nuclear lamins
    connection site for chromatin
  8. Microtubules monomer:
    • tubulin heterodimer
    • a & b tubulin
  9. Microtubules assembly:
    • Conveyor belt:
    • nucleating site/y-tubulin ring
    • protofilaments, a,b,a,b with GTP
    • creates lumen/microtubule
    • built at plus end at GTP cap
  10. Microtubules locations:
    • centrosome
    • nerve cells
    • cytoskeletal
    • cilia & flagella
  11. Microtubules regulation:
    • capping proteins-stabilize
    • Dynamic Instability-GDP-tubulin peels away protofilaments
  12. Microtubules functions
    • * motor proteins-transporting
    • * Sliding & bending for cilia & flagella
    • * dividing cells
  13. Microtubules motor protein parts:
    • tail & globular head
    • dynein-towards minus end
    • kinesins-towards plus end
  14. Microtubules motor protein used for cilia & flagella:
    • dynein-slides and bends
    • -uses doublet microtubule
  15. Actin filaments monomers:
    • globular actin: ATP/ADP
    • F-actin
  16. Actin filaments assembly:
    • polymerization:
    • Treadmilling
    • ATP globular actin build at the plus end,
    • P released->ADP actin monomer leaves
  17. Actin filaments locations
    • lamellipodium/substratum
    • cell cortex
    • filopodia
    • muscle
    • sarcomere
  18. Actin filaments regulation
    • Proteins:
    • severing
    • nucleating
    • cross-linking
    • bundling
    • myosin motor
    • side-binding
    • capping
  19. Actin filaments functions:
    • lamellipodium
    • filopodium
    • muscle contraction
  20. Actin filaments lamellipodium and filopodium action
  21. the 3 steps of vesicle docking and membrane fusion
    • transport vesicle docks-v-snare and t-snare intertwine
    • membranes coalesce
    • lipid bilayer fuse
  22. what makes mitochondrial and chloroplast peptide import different then ER and peroxisome
    • has to go through a double membrane
    • translocators for each membrane
  23. Important items for nuclear import
    • nuclear protein + nuclear localization signal(NLS) + receptor->nucleus
    • Ran-GTP + receptor=release of protein
    • Ran-GTP + receptor-> cytosol
    • Ran-GTP hydrolyzes=P   Ran-GDP  nuclear protein
  24. 6 steps of Golgi Apparatus
    • 1. vesicle ER->golgi
    • 2. vesicles coalesce=cis Golgi cisternae
    • 3. cisternal maturation->trans
    • 4. vesicles leave
    • 5. vesicles transport to newer Golgi cisternae or ER
  25. 4 types of gated channels
    • voltage
    • mechanical
    • chemical
    • ligand
  26. 3 types of channels
    • ion
    • aquaporins
    • gap junction
  27. 6 functions of membrane proteins
    • transport
    • enzymatic activity
    • signal transduction
    • cell-cell recognition
    • intercellular joining
    • cytoskeleton and ECM attachment
  28. 3 types of ion channels
    • mechanosensitive
    • voltage-gated
    • ligand-gated
  29. 2 forms of ligand-gated ion channels
    • heterotetramer
    • heteropentamer
  30. what transports solutes down their gradients via simple or facilitated diffusion
    • facilitated diffusion
    • channels/transporters
    • with conc gradient
    • no energy
  31. what type of transport goes against conc gradient?
    • active transport,
    •  pumps/transporters
    • requires energy
  32. difference between transporter and channel
    • transporter: binding site, conforms
    • Channel, opens
  33. types of diffusion channels are involved with
    • simple diffusion
    • facilitated diffusions
  34. Gap junction, type of diffusion and to where
    • simple
    • ajoining cells
  35. 2 types of pumps
    • coupled pump
    • ATP-driven pump
  36. 1 type of coupled pump
    light energy/H+
  37. ATP driven pumps
    • Na-K
    • Ca
  38. F-type coupled pump
    • mitochondrial
    • H+ makes ATP
  39. Transporter-uniport 1 type
    • Glucose
    • into consuming cells
    • out of generating cells or basal epithelial
  40. Transporter coupled-symporter, 2 types
    • Na-glucose
    • Sucrose-H+
  41. how does the Na-glucose coupled, symporter work?
    • cotransporter-into cell
    • -glucose in kidney & epithelial apical go up gradient
    • -Na goes down gradient
  42. How does the H+ sucrose coupled symporter work?
    • H+ pump pushes H+ out of cell
    • H+ and sucrose come into together
  43. 3 types of coupled antiporters
    • H/glutamate
    • Na/Ca
    • Cl/HCO3
  44. how does the H/glutamate coupled antiporter work?
    • in vesicles
    • -uses H+ gradient to bring in glutamate
  45. how does the Na/Ca coupled antiporter work?
    • Moves 3 Na+ down gradient-into cell
    • and 1 Ca++ up gradient and out of cell
  46. how does the Cl/HCO3 coupled antiporter work?
    • CO2 converts to bicarbonate in RBCs
    • moves into serum exchanging for Cl
    • processs rereversed in lungs so CO2 moves into air to exhale
  47. Endomembrane system
    • nucleus
    • ER
    • golgi
    • Plasma
    • Endosomes/lysosomes
  48. where are the signals to direct where vesicles go from ER?
    embedded in the membrane of vesicle
  49. what links the tetramer intermediate filaments?
    amino acid linker proteins
  50. What do all microtubules have?
    basal body that is the organizing center
  51. plasma membranes contain glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organized in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed
    lipid rafts
  52. things filopodium is used for
    • sensing
    • migration
    • cell-cell interactions
    • wound repair
    • neuron developement
    • phagocytic
  53. how flopodium works
    • extend beyond lamellipodia
    • cross-linked bundle-actin binding proteins
    • adhesion to substratum
    • GTPases-growth factor-polymerization
  54. Things lamellipodium is used for
    • wound repair
    • exocytosis/endocytosis-clathrin mediated style
  55. how does lamellipodium work?
    • treadmilling
    • actin nucleation in plasma membrane

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