Bio 1215- Chapter 12
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Bio 1215- Chapter 12
animal form function
Principles of animal form and function
what is the biological term for form and function?
what are 3 ways body plans are constrained?
the need to exchange with the environment
what does physical laws limit?
limits the number of possible solutions to a problem
what environment do all cell need to be in for exchange?
all living cells
must be in a liquid environment
& exchange with outside
how does surface play a role in form and function?
volume ratios limit cell size
therefore animals are multi-cellular
what are the 2 ways animals exchange gas?
some animals are hollow or thin for efficient diffusion
more complex animals have internal exchange surfaces
(lungs for oxygen)
Within a body, exchange occurs between 3 fluid compartments. what are they?
: inside cells
: between cells
what are the 2 ways to deal with internal and external changes?
to outside conditions
(ex. human, endothermic)
all species try to regulate some conditions at a "steady state". what is this term called?
what are the 3 things needed for internal and external changes to occur?
receptor (on skin)
control center (brain)
effector (gland or muscle)
what's the difference between negative feedback and positive feedback?
reverses a change
give an example for both positive and negative feedback.
contractions in child birth
glands releasing sweat during exercise to keep body cool
what is the only way to stop negative feedback?
only way to stop positive feedback is to
break the cycle
(ex. when baby delivered)
All animals except sponges have tissues. Define tissues.
group of cells with common structures and functions
what are the 4 types of animal tissue?
Define epithelial tissue and its function.
covers outside of body, body cavities, organs
for absorption, protection or secretion
which cell junctions are common in epithelial tissue?
tight junctions or desmosomes
what are the 2 types of epithelial tissue?
: one layer
: many layers
what are the 3 shapes of epithelial tissue?
define connective tissue and it's function. give some examples.
are scattered through a matrix of
supports and binds other tissues
ex. blood, bone, cartilage, tendon, adipose
what do muscle cells in muscle tissue contain and what allows them to contract?
muscle cells contain protein filaments that can slide past each other
cells excitable through sodium-potassium pump, able to contract
what are the 3 types if muscle tissue?
describe the structure and function of skeletal muscle tissue.
voluntary; attached to bones via tendons
help move body parts relative to each other
describe the structure and function of cardiac muscle.
involuntary; in heart, branched
helps in the pumping of blood
describe the structure and function of smooth muscle.
involuntary; in walls of internal organs
contracts and relaxes to do many functions including pushing food down intestine
what is the function of nervous tissue?
sense stimuli and transmits signals
what are the 2 types of cells in nervous tissue?
neurons and neuroglia
most animals except for which 2 have organs and organ systems?
sponges and some cnidarians