Bio 1215- Chapter 12

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Bio 1215- Chapter 12
2014-03-20 23:48:46
animal form function

Principles of animal form and function
Show Answers:

  1. what is the biological term for form and function?
    • Anatomy: form 
    • Physiology: function 
  2. what are 3 ways body plans are constrained?
    • evolved genome 
    • physical laws
    • the need to exchange with the environment 
  3. what does physical laws limit?
    limits the number of possible solutions to a problem
  4. what environment do all cell need to be in for exchange?
    all living cells must be in a liquid environment & exchange with outside
  5. how does surface play a role in form and function?
    • volume ratios limit cell size
    • therefore animals are multi-cellular
  6. what are the 2 ways animals exchange gas?
    • some animals are hollow or thin for efficient diffusion
    • more complex animals have internal exchange surfaces (lungs for oxygen)
  7. Within a body, exchange occurs between 3 fluid compartments. what are they?
    • intracellular fluid: inside cells
    • interstitial fluid: between cells
    • circulatory fluid: blood
  8. what are the 2 ways to deal with internal and external changes?
    • some species conform to outside conditions
    • others are regulators (ex. human, endothermic)
  9. all species try to regulate some conditions at a "steady state". what is this term called?
  10. what are the 3 things needed for internal and external changes to occur?
    • receptor (on skin)
    • control center (brain)
    • effector (gland or muscle)
  11. what's the difference between negative feedback and positive feedback?
    • negative feedback: reverses a change (for homeostasis)
    • positive feedback: amplifies it (for homeostasis)
  12. give an example for both positive and negative feedback.
    • positive feedback: contractions in child birth
    • negative feedback: glands releasing sweat during exercise to keep body cool
  13. what is the only way to stop negative feedback?
    only way to stop positive feedback is to break the cycle (ex. when baby delivered)
  14. All animals except sponges have tissues. Define tissues.
    group of cells with common structures and functions
  15. what are the 4 types of animal tissue?
    • epithelial tissue
    • nervous tissue
    • connective tissue
    • muscle tissue
  16. Define epithelial tissue and its function.
    • covers outside of body, body cavities, organs
    • for absorption, protection or secretion
  17. which cell junctions are common in epithelial tissue?
    tight junctions or desmosomes
  18. what are the 2 types of epithelial tissue?
    • simple: one layer
    • stratified: many layers
  19. what are the 3 shapes of epithelial tissue?
    • squamous (flat)
    • cuboidal
    • columnar
  20. define connective tissue and it's function. give some examples.
    • cells are scattered through a matrix of protein fibers and non-cellular ground substance
    • supports and binds other tissues
    • ex. blood, bone, cartilage, tendon, adipose
  21. what do muscle cells in muscle tissue contain and what allows them to contract?
    • muscle cells contain protein filaments that can slide past each other
    • cells excitable through sodium-potassium pump, able to contract
  22. what are the 3 types if muscle tissue?
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  23. describe the structure and function of skeletal muscle tissue.
    • voluntary; attached to bones via tendons
    • help move body parts relative to each other
  24. describe the structure and function of cardiac muscle.
    • involuntary; in heart, branched
    • helps in the pumping of blood
  25. describe the structure and function of smooth muscle.
    • involuntary; in walls of internal organs
    • contracts and relaxes to do many functions including pushing food down intestine
  26. what is the function of nervous tissue?
    sense stimuli and transmits signals
  27. what are the 2 types of cells in nervous tissue?
    neurons and neuroglia (helper cells)
  28. most animals except for which 2 have organs and organ systems?
    sponges and some cnidarians