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what is the biological term for form and function?
- Anatomy: form
- Physiology: function
what are 3 ways body plans are constrained?
- evolved genome
- physical laws
- the need to exchange with the environment
what does physical laws limit?
limits the number of possible solutions to a problem
what environment do all cell need to be in for exchange?
all living cells must be in a liquid environment & exchange with outside
how does surface play a role in form and function?
- volume ratios limit cell size
- therefore animals are multi-cellular
what are the 2 ways animals exchange gas?
- some animals are hollow or thin for efficient diffusion
- more complex animals have internal exchange surfaces (lungs for oxygen)
Within a body, exchange occurs between 3 fluid compartments. what are they?
- intracellular fluid: inside cells
- interstitial fluid: between cells
- circulatory fluid: blood
what are the 2 ways to deal with internal and external changes?
- some species conform to outside conditions
- others are regulators (ex. human, endothermic)
all species try to regulate some conditions at a "steady state". what is this term called?
what are the 3 things needed for internal and external changes to occur?
- receptor (on skin)
- control center (brain)
- effector (gland or muscle)
what's the difference between negative feedback and positive feedback?
- negative feedback: reverses a change (for homeostasis)
- positive feedback: amplifies it (for homeostasis)
give an example for both positive and negative feedback.
- positive feedback: contractions in child birth
- negative feedback: glands releasing sweat during exercise to keep body cool
what is the only way to stop negative feedback?
only way to stop positive feedback is to break the cycle (ex. when baby delivered)
All animals except sponges have tissues. Define tissues.
group of cells with common structures and functions
what are the 4 types of animal tissue?
- epithelial tissue
- nervous tissue
- connective tissue
- muscle tissue
Define epithelial tissue and its function.
- covers outside of body, body cavities, organs
- for absorption, protection or secretion
which cell junctions are common in epithelial tissue?
tight junctions or desmosomes
what are the 2 types of epithelial tissue?
- simple: one layer
- stratified: many layers
what are the 3 shapes of epithelial tissue?
- squamous (flat)
define connective tissue and it's function. give some examples.
- cells are scattered through a matrix of protein fibers and non-cellular ground substance
- supports and binds other tissues
- ex. blood, bone, cartilage, tendon, adipose
what do muscle cells in muscle tissue contain and what allows them to contract?
- muscle cells contain protein filaments that can slide past each other
- cells excitable through sodium-potassium pump, able to contract
what are the 3 types if muscle tissue?
describe the structure and function of skeletal muscle tissue.
- voluntary; attached to bones via tendons
- help move body parts relative to each other
describe the structure and function of cardiac muscle.
- involuntary; in heart, branched
- helps in the pumping of blood
describe the structure and function of smooth muscle.
- involuntary; in walls of internal organs
- contracts and relaxes to do many functions including pushing food down intestine
what is the function of nervous tissue?
sense stimuli and transmits signals
what are the 2 types of cells in nervous tissue?
neurons and neuroglia (helper cells)
most animals except for which 2 have organs and organ systems?
sponges and some cnidarians