child d. 3 test

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child d. 3 test
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2014-04-08 03:53:37
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  1. delay of gratification
    Being able to resist an immediate reward. 

    Predicts: achievements 10 yrs later
  2. marshmallow experiment
    -who
    - implications
    • daniel goleman
    • predict achievements 10 years later
  3. Freuds structure of personality
    id, ego, super ego
  4. Freuds psychosexual stages
    • Oral stage (birth-18 months)
    • Anal Stage (18 months-3 years)
    • Phallic stage (3- 5 years)
    • Latency stage (6 until puberty)
    • Genital Stage (puberty to end of life)
  5. freuds concious
    thoughts feelings and perception that u are aware of
  6. freuds preconcious
    -ex//
    • things that can easily be retrieved and made concious
    • -dreams, memories, and thoughts
  7. freuds unconcious
    • unacceptable info
    • -terrible/ disturbing thoughts that bring apond anxiety
  8. ID
    • primitive part of the mind
    • source of drives and ugres
  9. ID vs. pleasure principle
    • immediate gratification
    • -need something right now
  10. primary process thinking of ID
    ex//
    • to think w/o constraints of reality
    • -dreams
  11. ego
    • constrains id to reality
    • develops 2-3
  12. ego vs. reality principle
    • - urges of the ID often opposition to social and physical reality
    • - direct expressions of the ID is avoided, redirected, or postponed
  13. ego secondary process thinking
    develop strategy for solving problems
  14. super-ego
    • internal morals and values
    • 5 years old
    • -when you do wrong you feel ashamed, embarrassed, or guilty
  15. judgement vs. superego
    • similar to conscious
    • -knowing right/ wrong
    • not bound by reality
  16. anxiety
    • unpleasant state
    • clue that something isn't right and action is needed
  17. signal of anxiety
    ego is threatened by reality, impulses from the ID, harsh controls by the superego
  18. symptoms of anxiety
    physical and or panic
  19. escape anxiety
    strong ego
  20. first psychosexual stage
    -source of pleasure
    -conflict
    -fixation
    • oral stage
    • -mouth lip and tounge
    • -wean from breast or bottle
    • - overeating, smoking, nail biting, drugs
  21. second psychosexual stage
    -s.o.p.
    - conflict
    • anal stage
    • -sphincter is is pleasure source
    • -toilet training
    • - achieve self-control
  22. third psychosexual stage
    pleasure
    - conflict
    • phalic stage
    • -pleasure from touch of the private parts
    • - oedipal conflict and electra complex
  23. oedipal conflict vs. electra complex
    son wants dad gone to have mom vs vice versa.
  24. how to solve oedipical conflict or electra complex
    becoming like dad to achieve similar marriage
  25. fourth psychosexual stage
    • latency stage
    • - little to none psychological development
  26. last psychosexual stage
    conflict
    fixation
    • genital stage
    • resolving earlier conflicts
    • libido is focused on the genitals
  27. Criticisms of Freuds theory
    • Revolved around sexual desires too much
    • too negative towards women
  28. erikson theory of psychosocial developmanet
    interested in emphasis identity and the ego
  29. eriksonss difference in personality against freud
    • continues after 5 years throughout lifespan
    • crises wasn't sexual but social
    • different fixations and crises
  30. Erikson's 8 stages
    • 1. trust vs. mistrust
    • 2. autonomy vs shame
    • 3. initiative vs. guilt
    • 4. industry vs. inferiority
    • 5. identity vs. role confusion
    • 6. intimacy vs. isolation
    • 7. generativity vs. stagnation
    • 8. integrity vs. despair
  31. trust vs. mistrust
    • infant
    • care taker
  32. autonomy vs shame
    • toddler
    • control over what
  33. initiative vs. guilt
    • childhood
    • - play and roles
  34. industry vs inferiority
    • school
    • comparing oneself to others
  35. identity vs. role confusion
    • adolescence
    • figuring out who you are
    • to find an identity
  36. identity confusion
    not a strong grip of self awareness and who you are
  37. identity foreclosure
    forms identity w/o exploring alternatives
  38. identity moratorium
    taking time to explore options before committing to a particular identity
  39. intimacy vs. isolation
    • young adult
    • relationships and connections
  40. generativity vs. stagnation
    • adulthood
    • found something you are proud of
  41. integrity vs. dispair
    • old age
    • looking over accomplishments or not
  42. Stimulus generalization
    Connected other white fluffy things: was also scared of them.
  43. Little Albert
    • Through classical conditioning, little Albert associated a frightening loud noise with
    • a white rat to elicit fear. 
    • Fear can be learned.
  44. Bandura and bobo doll study
    kids who watch adults perform aggressive acts toward the bobo doll were more likely to also perform aggressive acts.
  45. systematic desensitization
    slowly exposing person to their fear in order for them to get used to it and over it. step by step process.
  46. Skinner: intermittent reinforcement
    When rewards are handed out irregularly, often used after a subject has been conditioned to give a desired response. (Variable ratio)
  47. Behavior modification therapy
    reinforce desirable behaviors and eliminate unwanted or maladaptive ones.
  48. reciprocal determinism
    characteristics of children lead them to seek out different experiences; child is then influenced by those experiences.
  49. Autonomous morality
    • Rules/laws are arbitrary and changeable
    • o Can sometimes be violated
    • Focus on intentions
    • Reciprocal punishment
    • o Punishment fits the crime
    • o Teaches a lesson
  50. Transition period
    • Rules handed down by authority and inflexible     
    • Focus on consequences
    • o Breaking 15 cups worse than 1 cup        
    • 2 principles:
    • o  Expiatory punishment
    • Punishment good for its own sake
    • o  Immanent justice
    • Broken rule will lead to punishment one way or another.
  51. Morality of constraint
    • PREMORAL!
    • No consistent responding, and can’t explain answers.     
    • Conclude:
    • Kids do not know the difference between right and wrong
  52. Piaget's theories
    • 1. Morality of Constraint: Before 5 Years
    • 2.Transition period (7 or 8 to 10 years)
    • 3. Autonomous Morality (>10 years)
  53. criticism of piaget's theory
    • underestimated young children
    • children do understand the difference between moral rules (violating another persons rights) and conventional rules (rules about certain situations)
  54. Kohlberg's levels of morality
    • 1. pre-conventional 
    • externally controlled (avoid punishment/satisfy own needs)
    • 2. conventional
    • be a good person by maintaining social order
    • 3. post conventional 
    • abstract principles and values that apply to all situations/societies
  55. carol gilligan vs kohlberg
    • for justice and rights
    • -focused on boys
    • -why not females?
  56. problems with kohlbergs theory
    • we reach a higher level
    • -education
    • -focused on a western (collective, tribal) like cultures
    • -moral behavior is set at a "highest level point"
  57. social learning theory
    based on orientation from external orientation from parents and internal orientation of right and wrong along with ones feelings
  58. method of individual morality
    observation of presence of adult or not
  59. role of parents
    act as models, reinforcements, and disciplinary actions
  60. disciplinary strategies
    • power assertion
    • love withdrawal 
    • induction
  61. power assertion
    yell spank and overall power of authority
  62. love withdrawal
    with holding love from child to get them to behave
  63. induction
    • explain bad behavior and why it it effects others
    • -most effective
  64. toy preference
    boys play more than girls and are more aggresive play
  65. aggression in male vs female
    boys are more overtly aggressive and females have relational aggression
  66. achievement in males vs. femlaes
    girls get better grades and boys and girls do equally well in tests
  67. anxiety and depression in males and females
    girls out weigh boys with anxiety and depression depends on age (adolescence) and school structure
  68. congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    ambiguous genitalia in females from large male hormone release
  69. teachers role in gender development
    scold: boys> girls
  70. media role on gender development
    tv, childrens books, stereotypical
  71. Role of parent on gender development
    • Specific emotion–
    • Happiness: Daughter = Sons
    • Anger: Sons > Daughter
    • Fear: Daughter> sons
    • sadness: daughter> sons
  72. gender constancy
    • a child's realization that a gender is fixed and does not change over time.
    • 3 stages:
    • 1. gender labeling
    • 2. gender stability
    • 3. gender consistency
  73. 9 dimensions of temperament
    •  Mood
    •  Approach/withdrawal
    •  Adaptability
    •  Intensity
    •  Rhythm
    •  Persistence
    •  Threshold
    •  Activity
    •  Distractibility
  74. 4 types of temperament
    • -easy 
    • -difficult
    • -slow-to-warm up (shy)
    • -shy
  75. goodness of fit
    “Child development outcomes will be optimized when environment is sensitively adapted to child’s temperamental characteristics…”
  76. Measuring temperament
    • -parental questionnaires
    • -Observational
    • -Laboratory assessments
    • =Procedures designed to elicit emotional reactions
    • - Physiological measures
    • = e.g., heart rate, EEG, cortisol levels
  77. Inhibited vs uninhibited (Kagen study)
    • - longitudinal study
    • - High active (20%): inhibited
    • - Low active (40%): uninhibited
    • -Decreased as child gets older      
    • -Inhibited kids: internalizing symptoms  
    • -Uninhibited kids: externalizing symptoms
    • -Parenting and environment may make it less extreme
  78. Bolwby's theory
    • -Mental representation of the self, attachment figures, and attachment relationships
    • -Guides expectations regarding relationships
    • -Influences overall adjustment, social behavior, and self-esteem
    • -Presence of a caregiver= a sense of security that allows exploration
  79. signs of attachment
    • ~Stranger anxiety
    •    =Fear of unfamiliar adults
    • ~Separation anxiety
    •    =Don’t want caregiver to leave
    • ~Social referencing
    •    =Look to caregiver when unsure
    • ~ Greetings
    •    =Reaction to caregiver after separation
    • ~Secure base behavior
    •   =Use caregiver as a “base of operations to explore”
    • ~Safe haven behavior
    •   =Go to caregiver to receive comfort when feeling threatened or distressed
  80. Strange situation
    - main episodes
    -important behaviors
    • ·Created by Mary Ainsworth
    • ·1-2 year olds
    • ·Series of separations and reunions
    • ·Somewhat stressful situation
    • How does the baby react
    • MAIN EPISODES
    • - stranger enters
    • - Mother leaves infant alone with stranger
    • - Mother returns/stranger leaves
  81. Classifications of infant security
    • · Secure (65%)
    • · Insecure-avoidant (25%)
    • · Insecure-resistant (10-15%)
    • · Disorganized/disoriented (~5%)
  82. Secure attachment
    • o Explores freely in caregiver’s presence
    • o Often visibly upset when caregiver leaves
    • o Greetscaregiver warmly at reunion
  83. Insecure- avoidant
    • o Show little of no distress upon separation
    • o Avoids contact with caregiver upon reunion
    • o May show more positive behavior with stranger than with caregiver
  84. Insecure- resistant
    • o Thoroughly distressed by separations
    • o Don’t settle easily upon reunions
    • o Mix proximity-seeking and angry behaviors
  85. disorganized/disorieted
    • o Lack a coherent strategy
    •    § Confused, contradictory behaviors
    •    § Dazed, fearful facial expressions
    •    § Frozen postures
  86. Sensitivity (different patterns for mothers)
    • · Secure mothers:
    •   - Respond to infants’ signals appropriately
    •   - Positive interactions
    • · Insecure-avoidant mothers
    •   - Emotionally unavailable
    •   - Reject infants’ attempts at closeness
    • · Unsecure-resistant mothers:
    •   - Inconsistent responding
    •   - Seem anxious and overwhelmed
    • · Disorganized mothers:
    •   - Exhibit abusive or frightening behaviors.
  87. Intervention Study
    • 2 groups:
    •  Trained to respond more sensitively to infants (experimental group)
    •  No training (control group)
    • RESULTS:
    • - Experimental group: mothers were more  attentive and responsive to infants.
    • - Follow‐up studies found continued increased security for the experimental group up to 3.5 years.
  88. Benefits of secure attachment
    • Better conflict management skills
    • Less aggression
    • Social competence/peer relations
    • Emotional implications later on
  89. The legacy of early experiences
    • - Formalized in the writings of Freud, Erickson, and Bowlby.
    • - Self-reports of your childhood experiences are reports of your childhood experiences are not consistently correlated with your own parenting behaviors.
  90. The Adult Attachment interview
    • - Semi-structured interview about early experiences.
    • - Used to understand the transmission of relationship experiences.
    • -“Representations of past relationships”.
  91. AAI (Adult Attachment Interview) Classifications
    •  Secure
    • - Adults’ who coherently discuss childhood experiences
    • - Provide specific memories in support of general descriptions.
    •  Dismissing
    • - Adults who minimize the impact of their childhood experiences.
    • - Idealizing of caregivers.
    • - Normalizing harsh caregiver behavior.
    • Preoccupied
    • - Adults who become caught up while talking about their childhood experiences.
    • - Often discuss negative experiences.
    • -May show signs of anger towards caregivers
    •  Unresolved status with respect to loss or trauma:
    • - Disorganized speech while discussing loss or abuse experiences.
    • - Lack of reasoning.
    • - Extreme responses such as suicide.
  92. Coding The AAI
    • Content:
    • - Loving
    • - Neglecting
    • - Pressure to Achieve
    • Sate of mind:
    • - Coherence
  93. What does Attachment Security Predict?
    (findings from fonagy)
    • - 96 pregnant women (children=46 girls, 50 boys).
    • -AAI conducted during the last trimester of pregnancy.
    • - Classified as secure, dismissing, or preoccupied.
    • RESULTS
    •  Concordant results:
    • - 75% of secure mothers had secure infants.
    • - 73% of insecure mothers had insecure infants.
    •  Discordant results:
    • - 27% of insecure mothers (dismissing or preoccupied) had secure infants.
  94. What does attachment security predict?(current romantic relationships, collaboration with strangers)
    • - More secure adults were more likely to have a higher quality relationship. higher quality relationship.
    • - Secure adults exhibited more collaborative behavior with strangers.
    • -Preoccupied adults attempted to dominate the interactions with strangers.

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