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delay of gratification
Being able to resist an immediate reward.
Predicts: achievements 10 yrs later
- daniel goleman
- predict achievements 10 years later
Freuds structure of personality
id, ego, super ego
Freuds psychosexual stages
- Oral stage (birth-18 months)
- Anal Stage (18 months-3 years)
- Phallic stage (3- 5 years)
- Latency stage (6 until puberty)
- Genital Stage (puberty to end of life)
thoughts feelings and perception that u are aware of
- things that can easily be retrieved and made concious
- -dreams, memories, and thoughts
- unacceptable info
- -terrible/ disturbing thoughts that bring apond anxiety
- primitive part of the mind
- source of drives and ugres
ID vs. pleasure principle
- immediate gratification
- -need something right now
primary process thinking of ID
- to think w/o constraints of reality
- constrains id to reality
- develops 2-3
ego vs. reality principle
- - urges of the ID often opposition to social and physical reality
- - direct expressions of the ID is avoided, redirected, or postponed
ego secondary process thinking
develop strategy for solving problems
- internal morals and values
- 5 years old
- -when you do wrong you feel ashamed, embarrassed, or guilty
judgement vs. superego
- similar to conscious
- -knowing right/ wrong
- not bound by reality
- unpleasant state
- clue that something isn't right and action is needed
signal of anxiety
ego is threatened by reality, impulses from the ID, harsh controls by the superego
symptoms of anxiety
physical and or panic
first psychosexual stage
-source of pleasure
- oral stage
- -mouth lip and tounge
- -wean from breast or bottle
- - overeating, smoking, nail biting, drugs
second psychosexual stage
- anal stage
- -sphincter is is pleasure source
- -toilet training
- - achieve self-control
third psychosexual stage
- phalic stage
- -pleasure from touch of the private parts
- - oedipal conflict and electra complex
oedipal conflict vs. electra complex
son wants dad gone to have mom vs vice versa.
how to solve oedipical conflict or electra complex
becoming like dad to achieve similar marriage
fourth psychosexual stage
- latency stage
- - little to none psychological development
last psychosexual stage
- genital stage
- resolving earlier conflicts
- libido is focused on the genitals
Criticisms of Freuds theory
- Revolved around sexual desires too much
- too negative towards women
erikson theory of psychosocial developmanet
interested in emphasis identity and the ego
eriksonss difference in personality against freud
- continues after 5 years throughout lifespan
- crises wasn't sexual but social
- different fixations and crises
Erikson's 8 stages
- 1. trust vs. mistrust
- 2. autonomy vs shame
- 3. initiative vs. guilt
- 4. industry vs. inferiority
- 5. identity vs. role confusion
- 6. intimacy vs. isolation
- 7. generativity vs. stagnation
- 8. integrity vs. despair
initiative vs. guilt
- - play and roles
industry vs inferiority
- comparing oneself to others
identity vs. role confusion
- figuring out who you are
- to find an identity
not a strong grip of self awareness and who you are
forms identity w/o exploring alternatives
taking time to explore options before committing to a particular identity
intimacy vs. isolation
- young adult
- relationships and connections
generativity vs. stagnation
- found something you are proud of
integrity vs. dispair
- old age
- looking over accomplishments or not
Connected other white fluffy things: was also scared of them.
- Through classical conditioning, little Albert associated a frightening loud noise with
- a white rat to elicit fear.
- Fear can be learned.
Bandura and bobo doll study
kids who watch adults perform aggressive acts toward the bobo doll were more likely to also perform aggressive acts.
slowly exposing person to their fear in order for them to get used to it and over it. step by step process.
Skinner: intermittent reinforcement
When rewards are handed out irregularly, often used after a subject has been conditioned to give a desired response. (Variable ratio)
Behavior modification therapy
reinforce desirable behaviors and eliminate unwanted or maladaptive ones.
characteristics of children lead them to seek out different experiences; child is then influenced by those experiences.
- Rules/laws are arbitrary and changeable
- o Can sometimes be violated
- Focus on intentions
- Reciprocal punishment
- o Punishment fits the crime
- o Teaches a lesson
- Rules handed down by authority and inflexible
- Focus on consequences
- o Breaking 15 cups worse than 1 cup
- 2 principles:
- o Expiatory punishment
- Punishment good for its own sake
- o Immanent justice
- Broken rule will lead to punishment one way or another.
Morality of constraint
- No consistent responding, and can’t explain answers.
- Kids do not know the difference between right and wrong
- 1. Morality of Constraint: Before 5 Years
- 2.Transition period (7 or 8 to 10 years)
- 3. Autonomous Morality (>10 years)
criticism of piaget's theory
- underestimated young children
- children do understand the difference between moral rules (violating another persons rights) and conventional rules (rules about certain situations)
Kohlberg's levels of morality
- 1. pre-conventional
- externally controlled (avoid punishment/satisfy own needs)
- 2. conventional
- be a good person by maintaining social order
- 3. post conventional
- abstract principles and values that apply to all situations/societies
carol gilligan vs kohlberg
- for justice and rights
- -focused on boys
- -why not females?
problems with kohlbergs theory
- we reach a higher level
- -focused on a western (collective, tribal) like cultures
- -moral behavior is set at a "highest level point"
social learning theory
based on orientation from external orientation from parents and internal orientation of right and wrong along with ones feelings
method of individual morality
observation of presence of adult or not
role of parents
act as models, reinforcements, and disciplinary actions
- power assertion
- love withdrawal
yell spank and overall power of authority
with holding love from child to get them to behave
- explain bad behavior and why it it effects others
- -most effective
boys play more than girls and are more aggresive play
aggression in male vs female
boys are more overtly aggressive and females have relational aggression
achievement in males vs. femlaes
girls get better grades and boys and girls do equally well in tests
anxiety and depression in males and females
girls out weigh boys with anxiety and depression depends on age (adolescence) and school structure
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
ambiguous genitalia in females from large male hormone release
teachers role in gender development
scold: boys> girls
media role on gender development
tv, childrens books, stereotypical
Role of parent on gender development
- Specific emotion–
- Happiness: Daughter = Sons
- Anger: Sons > Daughter
- Fear: Daughter> sons
- sadness: daughter> sons
- a child's realization that a gender is fixed and does not change over time.
- 3 stages:
- 1. gender labeling
- 2. gender stability
- 3. gender consistency
9 dimensions of temperament
4 types of temperament
- -slow-to-warm up (shy)
goodness of fit
“Child development outcomes will be optimized when environment is sensitively adapted to child’s temperamental characteristics…”
- -parental questionnaires
- -Laboratory assessments
- =Procedures designed to elicit emotional reactions
- - Physiological measures
- = e.g., heart rate, EEG, cortisol levels
Inhibited vs uninhibited (Kagen study)
- - longitudinal study
- - High active (20%): inhibited
- - Low active (40%): uninhibited
- -Decreased as child gets older
- -Inhibited kids: internalizing symptoms
- -Uninhibited kids: externalizing symptoms
- -Parenting and environment may make it less extreme
- -Mental representation of the self, attachment figures, and attachment relationships
- -Guides expectations regarding relationships
- -Influences overall adjustment, social behavior, and self-esteem
- -Presence of a caregiver= a sense of security that allows exploration
signs of attachment
- ~Stranger anxiety
- =Fear of unfamiliar adults
- ~Separation anxiety
- =Don’t want caregiver to leave
- ~Social referencing
- =Look to caregiver when unsure
- ~ Greetings
- =Reaction to caregiver after separation
- ~Secure base behavior
- =Use caregiver as a “base of operations to explore”
- ~Safe haven behavior
- =Go to caregiver to receive comfort when feeling threatened or distressed
- main episodes
- ·Created by Mary Ainsworth
- ·1-2 year olds
- ·Series of separations and reunions
- ·Somewhat stressful situation
- How does the baby react
- MAIN EPISODES
- - stranger enters
- - Mother leaves infant alone with stranger
- - Mother returns/stranger leaves
Classifications of infant security
- · Secure (65%)
- · Insecure-avoidant (25%)
- · Insecure-resistant (10-15%)
- · Disorganized/disoriented (~5%)
- o Explores freely in caregiver’s presence
- o Often visibly upset when caregiver leaves
- o Greetscaregiver warmly at reunion
- o Show little of no distress upon separation
- o Avoids contact with caregiver upon reunion
- o May show more positive behavior with stranger than with caregiver
- o Thoroughly distressed by separations
- o Don’t settle easily upon reunions
- o Mix proximity-seeking and angry behaviors
- o Lack a coherent strategy
- § Confused, contradictory behaviors
- § Dazed, fearful facial expressions
- § Frozen postures
Sensitivity (different patterns for mothers)
- · Secure mothers:
- - Respond to infants’ signals appropriately
- - Positive interactions
- · Insecure-avoidant mothers
- - Emotionally unavailable
- - Reject infants’ attempts at closeness
- · Unsecure-resistant mothers:
- - Inconsistent responding
- - Seem anxious and overwhelmed
- · Disorganized mothers:
- - Exhibit abusive or frightening behaviors.
- 2 groups:
- Trained to respond more sensitively to infants (experimental group)
- No training (control group)
- - Experimental group: mothers were more attentive and responsive to infants.
- - Follow‐up studies found continued increased security for the experimental group up to 3.5 years.
Benefits of secure attachment
- Better conflict management skills
- Less aggression
- Social competence/peer relations
- Emotional implications later on
The legacy of early experiences
- - Formalized in the writings of Freud, Erickson, and Bowlby.
- - Self-reports of your childhood experiences are reports of your childhood experiences are not consistently correlated with your own parenting behaviors.
The Adult Attachment interview
- - Semi-structured interview about early experiences.
- - Used to understand the transmission of relationship experiences.
- -“Representations of past relationships”.
AAI (Adult Attachment Interview) Classifications
- - Adults’ who coherently discuss childhood experiences
- - Provide specific memories in support of general descriptions.
- - Adults who minimize the impact of their childhood experiences.
- - Idealizing of caregivers.
- - Normalizing harsh caregiver behavior.
- - Adults who become caught up while talking about their childhood experiences.
- - Often discuss negative experiences.
- -May show signs of anger towards caregivers
- Unresolved status with respect to loss or trauma:
- - Disorganized speech while discussing loss or abuse experiences.
- - Lack of reasoning.
- - Extreme responses such as suicide.
Coding The AAI
- - Loving
- - Neglecting
- - Pressure to Achieve
- Sate of mind:
- - Coherence
What does Attachment Security Predict?
(findings from fonagy)
- - 96 pregnant women (children=46 girls, 50 boys).
- -AAI conducted during the last trimester of pregnancy.
- - Classified as secure, dismissing, or preoccupied.
- Concordant results:
- - 75% of secure mothers had secure infants.
- - 73% of insecure mothers had insecure infants.
- Discordant results:
- - 27% of insecure mothers (dismissing or preoccupied) had secure infants.
What does attachment security predict?(current romantic relationships, collaboration with strangers)
- - More secure adults were more likely to have a higher quality relationship. higher quality relationship.
- - Secure adults exhibited more collaborative behavior with strangers.
- -Preoccupied adults attempted to dominate the interactions with strangers.