Xray Terminology

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Xray Terminology
2014-05-24 11:50:32
xray terminology

Xray terminology
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  1. Anatomoic position
    body standing, palms forward
  2. superior
    upward, above, higher than
  3. inferior
    downward, below, lower than
  4. anterior
    ventral: toward the front
  5. posterior
    dorsal: toward the back
  6. lateral
    toward the side, toward the left or right of midline
  7. medial
    toward the midline
  8. cephalad
    headward (the shoulders are cephalead to the knees) (cephalic, cephalward)
  9. caudad
    footward (the knees are caudad or caudal to the hips) (caudal or caudally)
  10. proximal
    nearer the medpoint/ or trunk of the body (the shoulders are proximal to the elbows)
  11. distal
    further away from the midpoint or tunk of the body (hands are distal to elbows)
  12. coronal
    a plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior halves (looking at the coronal slice of body would be front to back AP view)
  13. sagittal
    a plane dividing the body into left and right lateral halves (looking at a sagittal slice would be a side Lateral view)
  14. transverse
    a place dividing the body into superior and inferior haves. (a transverse (axial) slice would be like a CT scan)
  15. parallel
    running along on the same plane
  16. perpendicular
    at 90 deg
  17. oblique
    at an angelĀ  (angles need to be specified)
  18. recumbent
    laying down
  19. prone
    laying face down
  20. supine
    lying face up
  21. lateral decubitus
    laying on side
  22. thigh
    hip to knee
  23. leg
    knee to ankle
  24. arm
    shoulder to elbow
  25. forearm
    elbow to wrist
  26. vertebra, vertebrae
    individual bones composing the spine
  27. cervical
    7 bones of the neck, numbered from superior to inferior c1, c2, c3, etc
  28. thoracic
    12 bones of the middle back (T1 - T12) also may be called dorsal spine D1-D12)
  29. lumbar
    5 bones of the lower back (L1 - L5)
  30. sacrum
    1 large triangular bone at back of spine (composed of 5 fused segments)
  31. coccyx
    1 small bone caudal to the sacrum (tailbone) (composed of 3 or 4 fused segments)
  32. scoliosis
    a lateral (side to side) curve in the spine (coronal plane) Abnormal
  33. concave
    the hollow side of a curve (inside)
  34. convex
    the rounded side of a curve (outside)
  35. lordosis
    a curve to the anterior (sagittal plane) Normal in cervical and lumbar spine
  36. kyphosis
    a curve to the posterior. Normal in thoracic spine
  37. disc
    the fibrocartilagenious cushion between all vertebrae C1&C2
  38. vetebralĀ canal
    ring behind each vertebral body through which the spinal cord passes from superior in inferior
  39. foramen (foramina)
    an opening (window) Used most frequently to indicate the intervertebral foramia (IVF), small canals between the verebrae (laterally, L&R) through which nerve roots exit from the spinal cord.
  40. Hypo
    • Less then (also may mean beneath)
    • (hypolordosis = flattened cervical spine)
  41. hyper
    greater than (hyperkyphosis = excessively rounded middle back)
  42. intra
    within (intravertebral means within the bone of the vertibra)
  43. inter
    between (intervertebral means between two vertebrae, as in intervertebral disc)
  44. supra
    above, superior to
  45. infra
    below, inferior to (infrascapular means below the shoulder blade)
  46. para, peri
    around, near, close to, abour (can also mean beyond, the opposite, adnormal, irregular)
  47. articulation
    joint - may be an internertebral joint or a peripheral joint
  48. tendon
    fibrous bands that attach muscles to bones
  49. ligament
    fibroelastic bands that hold joints together
  50. flex
    bend forward, assume the fetal position (decreased angle between parts)
  51. extend
    bend backward, opposite of fetal position (increased angle between parts)
  52. abduct
    move away from the trunk, as in shoulder or hip abduction (absent)
  53. adduct
    move toward the trunk or further toward the midline (add)
  54. circumduct
    combination of movements to "circle" a joint (some joints cannot circumduct)
  55. lateral flextion/ bending
    bend sideways L or R, side-bending, tiliting
  56. rotation
    turning (twisting) a part L or R, as in turning face to L or R
  57. sprain
    tearing ligaments - serious injury
  58. strain
    pulling muscle fibers - more mid injury
  59. luxaion
    dislocation - completely disrupting the joint, severely tearing the ligaments and separatingthe two involved bones
  60. subluxation
    a slightly malaligned or fixated joint that causes neuronal disturbance, with associated disturbances of the surrounding muscles, ligaments and vascular supply
  61. algia
  62. anomaly
    congential malformation "relating to birth"
  63. radio
  64. radiographer
    the technician who takes (produces) the films. An Xray operator
  65. radiologist/roentgenoligist
    the doctor who interprets the films
  66. diagnostic imaging
    updated term for radiology
  67. Posteroanterior (PA)
    the xray beam enters the posterior surface and exits the anterior sufrace
  68. Anteroposterior (AP)
    the xrays beam enters the anterior surface and exits the posterior surface
  69. Right Lateral (RL)
    indicates that the right side of the patient is in contact with the film
  70. (LL) Left Lateral
    indicates the the left side of the patient is in contact with the film
  71. Right anterior oblique (RAO)
    the right anterolateral surface of the body is closest to the film.
  72. Left anterior oblique (LAO)
    the left anterolateral surface of the body is closest to the film.
  73. Right posterior oblique (RPO)
    the right posterolateral surface of the body is closest to the film
  74. Left posterior oblique (LPO)
    The left posterolateral surface of the body is closest to the film.
  75. Upright (erect)
    The patient stands for the film
  76. recumbent
    the patient lies down for the film.
  77. Lateral decubites
    The patient lies on one side, with the beam passing through horizontally
  78. seated
    Sitting on a chair, with the unaffected body parts placed outside the path of the xrays beam
  79. X
  80. retraction
    Pulling back, in which the chin moves straight posterior.
  81. Xray or readiograph
    the image produce by x-radiation
  82. Antalgia, antalgic
    Posture to avoid pain
  83. Retraction
    Pulling back
  84. Rpo
    Right posterior oblique
  85. Lpo
    Left posterior olbique
  86. Pa
    Posterior anterior
  87. Ap
    Anterior posterior
  88. Rao
    Right anterior oblique
  89. Lao
    Left anterior oblique
  90. Annular tear
    Disc herniation
  91. Spinous process of spine
    The back point of the vertibrae
  92. Transverse process
    Side points of the vertebrae
  93. Nucleus pulposus
    The pulp in the middle of the vertebrae
  94. What is the biological effect of scatter
    Fog on the cassett