Physiology Exam 3

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Physiology Exam 3
2014-03-26 16:33:44
Physiology College

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  1. Endocrinology
    Study of endocrine glands and their secretions
  2. 4 Ways of communicating from cell to cell
    • 1 Gap Junction
    • 2 Neurotransmitter
    • 3 Paracrines
    • 4 Hormones
  3. Gap Junction (2)
    • Specialized intercellular connection between cells directly connects the cytoplasm of two cells, which allow communication between the two adjacent cells
    • Protein makes up the canal
  4. Neurotransmitters (2)
    • Released by neurons into synaptic cleft
    • Neuron > nerve impulse > neurotransmitter > target cells
  5. Paracrines (4) Ex: growth hormones, stimulate cell (proliferation) 1 tissue, target cells around secreting cell
    • Local regulators/hormones
    • Convey messages between neighboring cells
    • Chemical signals release into the area and interact with receptors on nearby target cells within seconds
    • Elicit cell responses more quickly than hormones
  6. Hormones (2)
    • Chemicals that are transported by the blood stream
    • Gland > Capillary > Blood Vessel > Target Cell
  7. Nervous System (4)
    • Electrical and Chemical
    • Quick start and stop responses to stimulus
    • Stops responding when stimulus stops
    • Each different nerve fiber has a specific target
  8. Hormone System (4)
    • Chemical
    • Hormone release could last from several seconds to days after stimulus that causes it
    • Some effects persist for several days or weeks
    • Some have more than 1 target Ex: GH
  9. Gland
    A group of cells that produces and secretes or gives off chemicals
  10. Exocrine (2)
    • Secrete its products into another organ or body surface by way of a duct such as sweat
    • Salivary Glands: release secretions in the skin or inside of the mouth
  11. Endocrine (3) (7)
    • Ductless glands because they secrete their chemical messengers (hormones) directly into extracellular fluid
    • From there the chemicals diffuse into the circulation
    • Found through out the body and include:
    • pituitary
    • thyroid
    • parathyroid
    • thymus
    • adrenal glands
    • part of the pancreas
    • parts of ovaries and testes
  12. Adrenocortiotropic(ACTH)
    • Ant. pituitary
    • Effects:
    • Growth of adrenal cortex
    • Secretion of glucocorticoids
  13. Antidiurentic(ADH)
      =>arginine vasopressin
    • Post. pituitary
    • Target organ/tissue:kidneys
    • Effects: water retention
  14. Atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP)
  15. Corticotropin-releasing hormone(CRH)
  16. Dehydoepiandrosterone(DHEA)
    Adrenal cortex
  17. Erythroprotein(EPO)
    • Kidney
    • Liver
  18. Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH)
    • Ant. pituitary
    • Target organ/tissue:
    •   -ovaries
    •   -testes
    • Effects:
    •   Female-growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen
    •   Male-sperm production
  19. Growth hormone(GH)
    • Ant. pituitary
    • Target organ/tissue:
    •   -liver
    •   -bone
    •   -fat
    •   -cartilage
    •   -muscle
    • Effects: Widespread tissue growth
  20. Growth-releasing hormone(GHRH)
  21. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH)
  22. Insulin-like growth(IGFs)
    • Liver
    • Other tissues
  23. Luteinizing hormone(LH)
    • Ant. pituitary
    • Target organ/tissue:
    •   -ovaries
    •   -testes
    • Effects:
    •   Female-ovulation, maintenance of corpus luteum
    •   Male-testosterone secretion
  24. Norepinephrine(NE)
    Adrenal medulla
  25. Oxytocin(OT)
    • Post. pituitary
    • Target organ/tissue:
    •   -uterus
    •   -mammary glands
    • Effects:
    • labor contractions
    • milk release
    • possibly involved in ejaculation
    • sperm transport
    • sexual affection 
    • mother-infant bonding
  26. Prolactin-inhibiting hormone(PIH)
  27. Prolactin(PRL)
    Ant. pituitary
  28. Parathyroid(PTH) (2)
    • Parathyroids
    • Raise blood calcium in response to hypocalcema
  29. Triiodothyronine(T3) active form
  30. Thyroxine(T4)
  31. Thyroid Hormone(TH) (2)
      => T3 & T4
    • Thyroid
    • Controls general metabolism
    • Under-secretion: in children produces stunted growth (dwarfism) and fail to develop mentally, in adults results in low metabolic rates
    • Over-secretion: in adults causes goitre
  32. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH)
  33. Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH)
    • Ant. pituitary
    • Target organ/tissue:
    • -thyroid gland
    • Effects:
    • growth of thyroid
    • secretion of thyroid hormones
  34. Regulation-feedback from target organ (6)
    -negative, causes stop of hormones (inhibitory effect)
    -positive, increase production (stimulatory effect)
    • 1) TRH + (hypothalamus to ant. pituitary)
    • 2) TSH + (ant. pituitary to thyroid) > produce thyroxin
    • 3) Thyroid hormone
    • 4) Target organs
    • 5) Back to hypothalamus
    • 6) Back to ant. pituitary
  35. Thyroid (3)
    • Largest endocrine
    • Right and left lobes lie on either side of the trachea united by the isthmus
    • Profound influence on both mental and physical activities
  36. Follicle
  37. Para-follicular Cell
    Secretes calcitonin hormone
  38. Follicular Cell (2)
    • Antagonizes parathyroid hormone function
    • Secretes hormones TH, thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothronine (T3)
  39. Parathyroid Glands (2)
    • 4, 2 on either side lying behind the thyroid
    • Secretion of PTH
  40. Thymus Gland (6)
    • Plays a role in 3 systems: endocrine, lymphatic, and immune system
    • Lies in the lower part of the neck
    • After puberty, it begins to degenerate, in adults it's replaced by fat
    • Instrumental in the production and maturation of T-lymphocytes
    • Once T cells have fully matured in the thymus, they migrate to the lymph nodes (groups of immune system cells) throughout the body, where they aid the immune system in fighting disease
    • Produces and secretes myosin, a hormone necessary for T cell development and production
  41. The supra-renal and adrenal Glands (3)
    • Lay one over each kidney
    • Divided into 2 parts: cortex and medulla (have cromaffin cells)
    • Produces: adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and a small amount of dopamine in response to stimulation by sympathetic neurons
  42. Functions of the supra-renal and adrenal Glands (8)
    • Powerful vasoconstrictor
    • Inhibits secretion of insulin
    • Inhibits digestion (temporarily)
    • Inhibits production of urine
    • Rise of heart rate
    • The amount of epinephrine secreted is increased by excitement, fear, or anger
    • Raises blood sugar by increasing output of sugar from the liver by process of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
  43. Dopamine (3)
    • One of the neurotransmitters playing a major role in addiction
    • As a chemical messenger, it's similar to norepinephine and epinephrine
    • Affects brain process that control movement, emotional response, and ability to experience pleasure and pain
  44. In adrenal glands, cortex produces a number of steroid hormones called...
    There are 3 categories:
    • Corticosterone, cortisol, and aldostrone
    • -mineralocorticoids
    • -glucocorticoids
    • -sex steroids
  45. Functions of adrenal glands (3)
    • Control sodium and potassium balance
    • stimulate the storage of glucose
    • affect or supplement the production of sex hormones
  46. Pancreas (4)
    • The endocrine part of the pancreas consists of cells called islets of langerhans
    • 20% alpha cells
    • 70% beta cells
    • 10% other cells
  47. Alpha cells
    Secrete glucagon hormone that increases blood glucose level by glyconegenesis and glycogenolysis
  48. Beta Cells (3)
    • Secrete insulin which regulates the sugar level in the blood
    • Insulin stimulates glucose uptake by liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscles
    • Too little insulin results in diabetes mellitus
  49. Diabetes Mellitus
       Divides into 2 forms...
    • Juvenile onset, which occurs before the age of 25
    • In maturity, which is very common
  50. 2 Major Hormones
    • Cholesterol (steroids), 4 ringed backbone differ in function
    • Amino Acids (peptides)
  51. Formation of peptide hormones (7)
       Ex: Insulin
    • Hormones encode for protein
    • Begin with transcription, then translation
    • The newly synthesis protein is preprohormone, which contains a signal peptide
    • Guides it into ER for modification
    • Here signal peptide is removed
    • Now the polypeptide is called prohormone, which is transferred to Golgi complex for further modification in Golgi complex
    • The active protein is packaged and released from the cell
  52. Hormone Receptor and Mode of Action (3)
    • Hormones stimulate only those cells that have receptors for them
    • Receptors are glycoprotein molecules located on the plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus
    •    When hormone binds to target cell receptor certain metabolic pathways are turned on or off
  53. Hormone Receptor Specificity
    Receptor for one hormone doesn't bind to another hormone
  54. Saturation (2)
    • Condition where all the receptors are occupied by hormone molecule adding more hormone
    • Cannot produce any greater effect
  55. Hormones like glucagon and adrenaline...(2)
    • Cannot pass through the cell membrane
    • The effects of these hormones are transferred into the cells by a second messenger, cAMP
  56. cAMP(cyclic monophosphide) (2)
    • Synthesized from ATP by activated adenylyl cyclase located on the inner side of the plasma membrane
    • Adenylyl cyclase is activated by an activated G-protein
  57. Hormonal Process (6)
    • 1) Hormone-receptor binding activates a G-protein
    • 2) G-protein activates adenylyl cyclase
    • 3) Adenylyl cyclase produces cAMP
    • 4) cAMP activates protein kinases
    • 5) protein kinases phosphorylate enzymes, activate some enzymes and deactivate others
    • 6) Activated enzymes catalyze metabolic reactions with a wide range of possible effects on the cell, last enzyme become phosphoralated
  58. Target Cells
    Adapt their sensitivity to the hormone by changing the number of their receptors
  59. Targeting Cells Up and Down Regulation (3)
    • Down Regulation: A decrease in number of receptors for a hormone, a cell becomes less sensitive to a hormone due to long-term exposure to a high hormone concentration Ex: Adipocytes
    • Up Regulation: Process that makes cells more responsive to hormones by increasing the number of receptors on the surface of the cell Ex: Oxytocin
    • *Up Regulation and Down Regulation can also happen as a response to other stimuli such as toxins
  60. Hormone Clearance (3)
    • Most hormones taken up and degraded by the liver and kidneys
    • The excreted in the bile or urine
    • The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) is a rate of a hormone removal
  61. Hormone Half Life
    Length of time require to clear off 50% of the hormone from the blood
  62. Circulatory System
    Consists of heart, blood vessels and blood
  63. Hematology
    Study of blood
  64. Functions of Blood (4)
    • Associated with transport of gases, nutrients, hormones, wastes
    • Regulation of body temperature, blood pressure, and pH
    • Protection
    • Clotting
  65. Components of Blood and General Properties of Blood (1 + 3)
    • Blood consists of plasma and formed elements...
    • -Erythrocytes
    • -Leukocytes
    • -Platelets
  66. Erythrocytes (RBC) (3)
    • Contain hemoglobin, which is a large respiratory pigment with 4 protein chains and 4 hem groups with iron that carry oxygen
    • Transport gases
    • Change shape to fit through capillaries in lungs to pick up oxygen
  67. Leukocytes (WBC) (2)
    • 1) granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
    • 2) agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes
  68. Plasma (1+ 3)
    • Contains water, nutrients, salts, wastes, gases, hormones, and 3 types of plasma proteins that have different functions
    • - Albumin, transport of ions
    • - Fibrinogen, clotting
    • - Globulin, antibodies
  69. Centrifugation (2+3+1)
    • Plasma and formed elements separate
    • Results
    • -Plasma, 55% of whole blood
    • -Buffy Coat, leukocytes and platelets (<1% of whole blood)
    • -Erythrocytes, 45% of whole blood
    • *Buffy Coat and Erythrocytes are composed of formed elements
  70. Viscosity and Osmolarity of Blood
    Define its thickness and solute concentration, which affects pressure and flow
  71. Hemopoiesis (2)
    • Production of blood, especially formed elements
    • The tissues producing the blood cells are hemopoietic tissues
  72. Hematocrit packed cell volume (pcv) (3)
    • Measures the percentage of erythrocytes of total blood
    • Humans have 4-6million RBCs/micro-liter, a hematocrit of 45%
    • 14-16g/deciliter of hemoglobin quantities are higher in males
  73. Erythropoiesis (2)
    • Production of RBC
    • Occurs in bone marrow throughout life and in the liver and spleen of fetus
  74. Erythropoiesis Process (4)
    • 1) Hemopoietic stem cell > colony > forming unit > (erythrocyte CFU) > precursor cell
    • 2) Erythroblast > precursor cell: reticulocyte > mature cell:erythrocyte
    •    -In Sum: Glycoprotein hormone erythroprotein (EPO) binds its receptor on erythrocyte CFU and transform it into erythroblast.
    • 3) Erythroblasts shrink, lose the nucleus, and produce hemoglobin called reticulocytes
    • 4) circulates in blood 1 or 2 days to be a erythrocyte
  75. Iron Production (2+2)
    • Must be obtained through diet and absorbed because it is a necessary component of hemoglobin
    • Exists in 2 forms,
    •    -ferric only form that can be processed through the intestine
    •    -ferrous
  76. Iron Production Process (8)
    • 1) Mixture of Fe2+ and Fe3+ is ingested
    • 2) Stomach acid converts Fe3+ to Fe2+ (oxidation)
    • 3) Fe2+ binds to gastroferritin
    • 4) Gastroferritin transports Fe2+ to small intestine and releases it for absorption
    • 5) In blood plasma, Fe2+ binds to transferrin(protein)
    • 6) In liver, sometransferrin releases Fe2+ for storage
    • 7) Fe2+ binds to apoferritin to be stored as ferritin
    • 8) remaining transferrin is distributed to other organs where Fe2+ is used to make bone marrow, hemoglobin, and myoglobin
  77. Erythrocyte Homeostasis (6)
    • Negative feedback mechanism
    • Hypoxemia: oxygen deficiency in blood
    • Stimulates production of RBC
    • Hypoxemia is sensed by the liver and kidneys
    • Erythroprotein is secreted and then stimulates red bone marrow
    • Erythropoiesis accelerates and RBC count increases to increase O2 transport
  78. Erythrocyte graveyard
    Aged RBCs die in spleen
  79. Hemolysis-rupture of RBC (2)
    • Usually removed from the circulation by the spleen and liver
    • After about 120 days, RBCs get recycled in liver and spleen, releasing free amino acids, iron and bilirubin (breakdown product of heme and is excreted in bile and urine)
  80. Some RBC disorders include (3+1)
    • Jaundice-high level of bilirubin in blood
    • Anemia-deficiency in RBCs
    • Sickle-cell -hereditary, in HbA (healthy) is glutamic acid (polar)
    •    -Hbs doesn't bind to O2 at low O2 and causes RBC to become elongated and block small blood vessels
  81. Leukopoiesis (3)
    • Occurs through life in bone marrow and other lympoid organs
    • Results in 5 types of WBCs
    • These migrate to other tissues fighting pathogens as part of the immune system
  82. RBC Cycle (2+4+5+8)
    • Small Intestine
    • Nutrient Absorption:
    • -amino acid
    • -iron
    • -follic acid
    • -vitamin B12
    • Erythropoiesis in red bone marrow
    • Eurythrocytes circulate for 120 days
    • Expired eurythrocytes break up in liver and spleen
    • Cell Fragments phagocytized
    • Hemoglobin Degrated
    • *heme
    • splits to biliverdin and iron
    • -*bilirubin
    • *bile
    • *feces
    • -*iron, reused, stored, lost by menstration, injury, etc.
    • #globin
    • *hydrolyzed to free amino acids
  83. Leukocytes (2)
    • Constitute only 1% of blood
    • Act outside blood in immune responses
  84. Granulocytes Include... (3)
    • Neutrophils, most common, fight bacteria and form pus
    • Eosinophils, rare, fight parasites and participate in allergic responses
    • Basophils, rare, secrete histamine and heparin (blood thinner)
  85. Agranulocytes Include...(2)
    • Lymphocytes, common, fight cancer and viruses, secrete antibodies
    • Monocytes, rare, digest pathogens and debris
  86. Differential WBC count (5,000-10,000)
    Ex: leukemia
    Can reveal infection, cancer, and various other pathological conditions
  87. Immune System (2)
    • Defends body against pathogens
    • Composed of WBC, lymphoid tissues and lymphoid organs
  88. Blood cell formation procedure (1+7)
    • Hemopoietic stem cell > colony forming units > precursor cells > mature cells
    • -eosinophil
    • -basophil
    • -neutrophil
    • -monocyte
    • -B lymphocyte
    • -T lymphocyte
    • -NK cell
  89. Lymphatic System
    Consists of a network of lymph vessels intermingles with blood vessels throughout the body *know pics
  90. Functions of The Lymphatic System (3)
    • Reabsorb fluid lost from capillaries and return to circulation
    • Activate immune system by carrying pathogens to lymphoid organs
    • absorb fats (dietary lipids that not absorbed by the capillaries) from small intestine
  91. Lymphatic Capillaries (2)
    • Consist of a sac of thin endothelial cells that loosely overlap each other
    • Overlapping edges of the endothelial cells act as valves
  92. Components of Lymphatic System (4)
    • Lymph
    • Lymphatic vessels
    • Lymphatic tissues
    • Lymphatic organs
  93. Lymph (5)
    • The recovered fluid
    • Similar to blood plasma in its contents
    • Contains primarily lymphocytes more fats, more pathogens, cellular debris
    • Lacks RBC and platelets
    • Slow movement
  94. Lymphatic Vessels (2+1)
    • Lymph flow through a system of lymphatic vessels similar to blood vessels
    • Begin with microscopic lymphatic capillaries which penetrate nearly every tissue of the body but are absent from the CNS, cartilage, cornea, bone, and bone marrow
    • *unlike blood capillaries they are closed at one end
  95. The route from the tissue fluid back to blood steam: (1+1)
    • Begin as blind capillaries and feed into collecting vessels, lymphatic trunks, and collecting ducts, which drain into veins in the neck (subclavian vein)
    • *lymph is under low pressure and flows slowly
  96. Lymphatic Tissues (1+1)
    • Include tissue nodules or follicles (clusters of lymphocytes and macrophages in any organs)
    • *lymphocytes attack pathogens
  97. Cells (3)
    • Lymphocytes (NK, B Cells, T Cells)
    • Macrophages (develope from monocytes)
    • Neutrophils, basophil, eosinophils, dendric cells, and reticular cells
  98. Lymphatic Organs (2)
    • Primary:
    • -bone marrow
    • -thymus

    • Secondary:
    • -lymph nodes
    • -tonsils
    • -spleen
  99. Bone Marrow (2)
    • Produces all blood cells
    • B cells mature
  100. Thymus (2)
    • Mainly functions in children
    • Responsible for maturation of T cells
  101. Lymph Nodes (5)
    • Clean lymph
    • Lymph enters afferent vessels
    • Passes through nodules of lymphocytes and macrophages and exits efferent vessels
    • found in clusters in many areas of the body
    • Increase in size when the body is invaded by pathogens
  102. Tonsils
    Contain patches of lymphocytes around the entrance of the pharynx where many pathogens enter the body
  103. Pharynx
    The musculomembraneous cavity behind the nasal cavities
  104. Spleen (2)
    • Cleans blood of pathogens
    • Recycles eurythrocytes and is hemopoietic (stem cells that give rise to all the blood cell types) in fetus
  105. Pathogens include (7)
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Parasites
    • Fungi
    • Protozoa
    • Radiation
    • Toxins
  106. Non-specific Defense (innate): (6)
    • no prior exposure needed
    • include external barriers
    • general internal defense mechanisms (leukocytes, antimicrobial protein, immune surveillance, inflammation, fever)
    • External barriers include, skin, cilia, mucus membranes
    • Antimicrobial proteins include interferons (proteins released by WBCs that incapacitate pathogens and alert other WBCs)
    • Inflammation: involves a local response to tissue injury, and causes redness, swelling, heat, and pain
  107. Specific Defense (8)
    • Recognition of particular pathogens
    • Memory of prior exposure
    • Immunity developed
    • Major cells involved include lymphocytes
    • Cellular Immunity (cell mediated immunity): involves T cells, and involves a direct attack against cancers, intracellular viruses, and foreign tissues and organs
    • Humoral Immunity (antibody mediated immunity): Involves production of antibodies (involves B cells which secrete antibodies that tag pathogens for later attack)
    • Pathogens are inside cell where they're inaccessible by antibodies (CImmunity)
    • Effective against extracellular viruses, bacteria, yeast, and non-cellular pathogens such as toxins, venoms, allergens and mismatched blood transfusion
  108. Antigen
    Any molecule that triggers an immune response
  109. Ag epitopes (3)
    • A molecular region of the surface of an antigen capable of eliciting an immune response
    • One Ag has several epitopes that can stimulate the production of different abs
    • Ab attached to Ag epitope
  110. Ab is an immunoglobin(Igs) (4+1)
    • Composed of 4 polypeptide chains
    • 2 light chains (200aa)
    • 2 heavy chains (400aa)
    • linked by disulfide (_S_S_) bonds
    • *Hinge on H chain causes the monomer to have Y shape V region of L and H chain forming Ag binding site
  111. There are 5 classes of abs
    • IgA- monomer, dimer
    • IgD- monomer
    • IgE- monomer
    • IgG- monomer
    • IgM- monomer, pentamer