Card Set Information
Short Acting Beta 2 (rol)
Prevention of exercised induced bronchospasm.
An effect begins within 5 minutes. peaks in 30-60 mintues.
Duration may last 2-8 hours.
Exercised induced asthma may be inhaled 15 minutes prior to activity as prophylaxis against attack.
Used for quick relief known as "reliever"
Most effective drugs available for relief of acute bronchoconstriction and bronchospasm associated with asthma and COPD.
Sympathetic system (stress, nausea due to decrease peristalsis
Beta blockers can decrease effectiveness
Allow 5 minutes before taking other inhaled medications.
Allow 1 minute between puffs.
Given via nebulizer
Used mostly with young children.
Can result in peripheral vasoconstriction
Drug of choice for acute symptoms
Use albuterol before any other medications
Long Acting Beta 2 Agonists
Used for chronic pulmonary disorders as maintenance treatment.
Not indicated for acute symptoms or as a "rescue medication" May increase the risk of severe asthma and asthma related death.
It can protect against bronchospasm over an extended time.
Approximately 12 hours
Onset of action 15-25 minutes.
Should be taken on a fixed schedule and not PRN
Combivent, Duoneb (Ipratropium and albuterol)
Blocks parasympathetic nervous system.
Onset of action is longer than albuterol
Affects GI system more.
Maintenance therapy of reversible airway obstruction due to COPD
Preferred in patients taking beta blockers.
Contraindicated in patients with glaucoma and bladder obstructions
Contraindicated in peant and soy allergies.
Xanthines (Methylxananthines) (ine)
Aminophylline IV. Must be administered slowly. Rapid infusion can cause cardiovascular fatalities
It's like a big shot of caffeine.
Relaxation of smooth bronchial muscles.
Reserved for long term management of persistent asthma that is unresponsive to beta agonists or inhaled corticosteroids.
S/S of toxicity
Contraindicated for patients with untreated seizure disorders or peptic ulcer disease. Use with caution in patients with heart disease, liver or kidney dysfunction or severe hypertension.
Mast Cell Stabilizers
Inhibit the release of histamine from mast cells. Acts as an anti inflammatory
Maximum therapeutic benefit may take several weeks.
Used as maintenance therapy
Very safe and effective drug for prophylaxis of asthma
Not useful in aborting an ongoing episode
Not a bronchodilator
May cause cough
Inhaled with MDI or mebulizer
Take on a regular schedule.
More potent than mast cells
Decreases inflammation and suppresses the immune system.
Decreases edema of the airway mucosa
Reduce bronchial hyper reactivity and decrease airway mucus production
Brush teeth and gargle to prevent oral thrush
Dosage must be tapered down
Used for prophylaxis
Does not work right away
Blocks the inflammatory process in the airways by antagonizing the effects of leukotrienes
Has a mild anti inflammatory and bronchodilator effect
Maintenance therapy for chronic asthma
Used for long term control
Elevated Liver enzyme
May be toxic to the liver- use cautiously in patients with hepatic impairment and chronic alcoholism
Antagonizes action of histamine
Relieves allergy symptoms
Does not relieve congestion
Can reduce symptoms of mild allergic reactions
Most effective when taken prophylactically and less helpful when taken after symptoms have appeared.
Urinary retention, constipation
Thickening of bronchial secretions
Contraindicated with acute asthma episode, impaired GI motility, urinary tract obstruction, heart disease.
May cause excitation of the CNS
Do not operate heavy equipment
Relieve nasal congestion, only relieve stuffiness, they do not reduce rhinorrhea, sneezing or itching.
: Tacycardia, HTN, cardiac arrythmias
Chronic nasal sprays can cause rebound congestion
: HTN, cardiac arrythmias, CAD
These drugs are subject to abuse.
Suppress cough reflex
Used for dry, hacking, nonproductive cough
N/V, constipation, excessive suppression of cough reflex
Instruct patients to avoid driving
Opioid containing products can suppress respirations.
Liquefies respiratory secretions and allow for easier removal
Drowsiness, Headache GI upset
Dornase Alfa (Pulmozyme) - used for thick bronchial secretions
: Cystic Fibrosis.
Reacts directly with mucus to make it more watery. This action makes the cough more productive
Administered by nebulization
Can trigger bronchospasm
Treatment is always done with 2 or more drugs
Streptomycin (secondary drug)
Hepatoxicity, hepititis. Give Vitamin B6 to prevent/decrease neuropathy
Avoid tyramine foods
Rifamate (INH + rifampin)
Orange discoloration of urine and other secretions.
Hepatoxicity, hyperuricemia arthralgia (joint pain), GI irritation
Monitor AST,ALT, uric acid
PO twice weekly
Affects the eyes
Optic neuritis, impaired red green color discrimination.
May lead to blindness
IM twice weekly
Affects the ears
Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hypokalemia