Bio Exam 2

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Ivanneth
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267005
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Bio Exam 2
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2014-03-19 17:53:46
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all chapter review questions for biology exam 2
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  1. If you hold your breath for a long time, body co2 levels are likely to ___, and the ph of the body fluids in likely to ___.
    A) increase ; increase
    B) increase ; decrease
    C) decrease ; decrease
    D) decrease ; increase
    B) increase ; decrease
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Increased efficiency of gas exchange in vertebrates has been brought about by all of the following mechanisms except:
    A) cutaneous respiration
    B) unidirectional air flow
    C) crosscurrent blood flow
    D) cartilaginous rings in trachea
    D) cartilaginous rings in trachea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which of the following is the primary method by which carbon dioxide is transported to the lungs?
    A) as bicarbonate
    B)as carbon monoxide
    C) dissolved in plasma
    D) bound to hemoglobin
    A) as bicarbonate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Cells that target and kill body cells infected by viruses are
    A) macrophages
    B) natural killer cells
    C) monocytes
    D) neutrophils
    B) natural killer cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Structures on invading cells recognized by the adaptive immune system are known as
    A) antibodies
    B) antigens
    C) interleukins
    D) lymphocytes
    B) antigens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following acts as the "alarm signal" to activate the body's adaptive immune system by stimulating helper T cells?
    A) Interleukin-1
    B) Histamines
    C) B cells
    D) complement
    A) Interleukin-1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Cytotoxic T cells are called into action by the:
    A) presence of interleukin-2
    B) presence of histamine
    C) presence of interleukin-1
    D) interform
    A) presence of interleukin-2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Receptors that trigger innate immune responses:
    A) are not specific at all
    B) recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns
    C) are antibodies recognizing specific antigens
    D) are T cell receptors recognizing specific antigens
    B) recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Diseases in which the person's immune system no longer recognizes its own MHC proteins are called:
    A) autoimmune diseases
    B) allergies
    C) delayed hypersensitivity
    D) immediate hypersensitivity
    A) autoimmune diseases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Suppose that a new disease is discovered that suppresses the immune system. Which of the following would indicate that the disease specifically affects the B cells, rather than the T cells?
    A) a decrease in the production of interleukin-2
    B) a decrease in the number of plasma cells
    C) a decrease in interferon production
    D) a decrease in the production of interleukin-1
    B) a decrease in the number of plasma cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. The epidermis fights microbial infections by:
    A) all of the choices are correct
    B) excreting lysozyme to attack bacteria
    C) making the surface of the skin acidic
    D) producing mucus to trap microorganisms
    A) all of the choices are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. In comparing T cell receptors and immunoglobulins:
    A) the proteins have related structures, but diversity is generated by different mechanisms
    B) the proteins have unrelated structures, but diversity is generated by a similar mechanism
    C) the proteins have related structures and diversity is generated by a similar mechanism
    D) the proteins have unrelated structures, and diversity is generated by different mechanisms
    C) the proteins have related structures and diversity is generated by a similar mechanism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. If you have type AB blood:
    A) your blood agglutinates with anti-A antibodies only
    B) agglutinates with both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
    C) agglutinates with anti-B antibodies only
    D) would not agglutinate with either anti-A or anti-B antibodies
    B) agglutinates with both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Ficks Law of Diffusion states the rate of diffusion is directly proportional to:
    A) temperature of the gas molecule
    B) the pressure differences between the inside of the organism and the outside
    C) the area differences between the two sides of the membrane and area over which the diffusion occurs
    D) the pressure differences between the two sides of the membrane and area over which the diffusion occurs.
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. cutaneous respiration requires:
    A) low temperature
    B) the absence of gills and lungs
    C) an environment rich in oxygen
    D) moist and highly vascularized skin
    D) moist and highly vascularized skin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Hyperventilation occurs:
    A) when the partial pressure of co2 is low
    B) when oxygen levels become low
    C) when tidal volumes are unusually low
    D) as a result of breathing rapidly
    A) when the partial pressure of co2 is low
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Most carbon dioxide is
    A) combined with water in cells to form carbonic acid
    B) stored in the lungs prior to exhalation
    C) dissolved in plasma
    D) bound to hemoglobin
    A) combined with water in cells to form carbonic acid.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. When you take a deep breath, your stomach moves out because:
    A) when your diaphragm contracts, it moves down, pressing your abdominal cavity out
    B) swallowing air increases the volume of the thoracic cavity
    C) contracting your abdominal muscles pushes your stomach out, generating negative pressure in your lungs
    A) when your diaphragm contracts, it moves down, pressing your abdominal cavity out
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Marine mammals are able to hold their breath for extended periods underwater because:
    A) the brains of marine mammals do not have receptors that respond to impulses initiated in the aortic and carotid bodies
    B) unlike humas, they dont hyperventilate
    C) myoglobin in muscle tissue provides an oxygen reserve.
    D) partial pressure of carbon dioxide does not increase underwater
    C) myoglobin in muscle tissue provides and oxygen reserve
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Coutercurrent flow systems do not occur in lungs because they:
    A) are limited to fish
    B) cannot operate in the presence of carbon dioxide
    C) only work in moving organisms
    D) require oxygen suspended in flowing water
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Respiratory organs of invertebrates and vertebrates are similar in that:
    A) they increase the surface area for diffussion
    B) the air flows through the organ in one direction
    C) they use negative pressure breathing
    D) they take advantage of counter current flow systems
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Mountain climbers may have difficulty at high elevations because:
    A) more co2 occurs at higher elevations
    B) the ocncentration of all elements of the air is lower at higher elevations
    C) cooler temperatures restrict the metabolic activity of oxygen at high elevations.
    D) the partial pressure of oxygen is lower at higher elevations
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. During exercise, more oxygen is delivered to the muscles because:
    A) active muscles produce more co2, lowering the ph of blood
    B) both a) and b)  are correct
    C) neither are correct
    D) active muscles produce heat
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. An ECG measures:
    A) the volume of blood being pumped during the contraction cycle
    B) ca2+ concentration of the ventricles in diastole
    C) the force of concentration of the atria during systole
    D) changes in electrical potential during the cardiac cycle
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Systole is vitally important to heart function and begins in the heart with the:
    A) opening of the voltage gated potassium gates
    B) opening of the semilunar valves
    C) activation of the AV node
    D) activation of the SA node
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. What is the correct sequence of events in the circulation of blood?
    heart - arteries - arterioles- capillaries- venules- veins - heart
  27. Which of the following statements is not true?
    A) both arteries and veins have a layer of smooth muscle
    B) Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries
    C) only arteries carry oxygenated blood
    D) both arteries and veins branch out into capillary beds
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. The lymphatic system is like the circulatory system in that they both:
    A) have a network or arteries
    B) are closed systems
    C) have nodes that filter out pathogens
    D) have capillaries
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which paring of structure and function is incorrect?
    A) Plasma : waste transport
    B) Platelets : blood clotting
    C) all choices are correct
    D) Erythrocytes: oxygen support
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. When a sphygmomanometer is used:
    A) pulsing ceases when blood pressure falls below systolic pressure
    B) cuff pressure stops decreasing when it equals systolic pressure
    C) blood does not move through the vein when cuff pressure is greater than maximal blood pressure
    D) blood pulses through the vein when systolic pressure is greater than the pressure caused by the cuff
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Blood clots are made of:
    A) fibrin
    B) fibrinogen
    C) all choices are correct
    D) prothrombin
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. In vertebrates, atria contract from the top, and ventricles contract from the bottom. How is this accomplished?
    depolarization from the SA node proceeds across the atria from the top; depolarization from the AV node is carried to the bottom of the ventricles before it emminates over ventricular tissue
  33. A molecule of CO2 that is generated in the cardiac muscle of the left ventricle would not pass through which of the following structures before leaving the body:
    A) right ventricle
    B) left atrium
    C) left ventricle
    D) Right atrium
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. The difference between the amphibian and mammal hearts is that:
    A) in the amphibian heart, there are 2 SA nodes
    B) in the ventricle in the amphibian heart, internal channels reduce mixing ofblood
    C) in the amphibian heart, oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mix completely in the single ventricle
    D) in the amphibian heart, only the left aorta pumps oxygen obtained by diffusion through the skin
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Contraction of the smooth muscle layers of the arterioles:
    A) all choices are correct
    B) increases the frictional resistance to blood flow
    C) may be a way of increasing heat exchange through the skin
    D) can increase blood flow to an organ
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Which of the following is NOT an ion homeostatically maintained in vertebrates?
    A) Na+
    B) Cl-
    C) Ca2+
    D) Fl-
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Suppose that your research mentor has decided to do a project on the filtering capabilities of Malpighion tubules. Which of the following creatures will you be spending your summer studying?
    A) birds
    B) ants
    C) earthworms
    D) mammals
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. A shark's blood is isotonic to the surrounding seawater because of the re-absorption of ___ in its blood.
    A) area
    B) NaCl
    C) ammonia
    D) uric acid
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. An important function of the excretory system is to eliminate excess nitrogen produced by metabolic processes, which of the following organisms is most efficient at packaging nitrogen for excretion?
    A) freshwater fish
    B) iguana
    C) camel
    D) frog
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Which of the following is a function of the kidneys?
    A) all of the choices are correct
    B) the kidneys remove harmful substances from the body
    C) the kidneys regulate the levels of salt in the body
    D) the kidneys recapture water for use from the body
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Humans excrete their excess nitrogenous wastes as:
    A) urea
    B) uric acid crystals
    C) ammonia
    D) compounds containing protein
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. An osmoregulator would maintain its internal fluids at a concentration that is ____ relative to its surroundings:
    A) hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic
    B) hypertonic
    C) hypotonic
    D) isotonic
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. In comparing invertebrate and vertebrate excretory systems, you conclude that:
    A) both filter body fluids and then reabsorb water and solutes
    B) both reabsorb ions ad water to control osmotic balance
    C) only vertebrates filter fluids and reabsorb water and ions
    D) both use a tubule system to process the filtrate
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. A viral infection that specifically interferes with the re-absorption of ions from the glomerular filtrate would attack cells located in the:
    A) bowman's capsule
    B) renal tubules
    C) collecting duct
    D) glomerulus
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Diuretics are drugs that can be used to treat high blood pressure by increasing urinary output. Possible mechanisms of action in the kidney include:
    A) increasing permeability of the collecting duct
    B) inhibition of NaCl re-absorption from the loop of Henle or the proximal tubule
    C) increasing ADH secretion
    D) increasing NaCl reabsorption in the proximal tubule
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Caffeine inhibits the secretion of ADH. Prior to an exam, you have a large coffee. During the exam, you can expect:
    A) greater water re-absorption from the collecting duct
    B) an increase in re-absorption of glucose from the proximal convoluted tubule
    C) less water re-absorption
    D) a decrease in re-absorption of glucose from the proximal convoluted tubule.
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Pathway that controls the reabsorption of Na+ ion when the blood pressure falls
    • Juxtaglomerular apparatus recognizes a drop in blood pressure
    • Renin is released
    • Angiotensin II is produced
    • Aldosterone is released
    • kidney tubules reabsorb Na+
  48. You are studying renal function in different species of mammals that are found in very different environments. You look at species from a desert environment and compare them with ones from a tropical environment. The desert species would be expected to have:
    A) longer distal convoluted tubules than the tropical species.
    B) shorter loops of Henle than the tropical species
    C) shorter proximal convoluted tubule than the tropical species
    D) longer loops of Henle than the tropical species
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Every so often , one of the creatures appendages will break off and gradually grow into a whole new organism, identical to the first. This is an example of:
    A) fission
    B) sexual reproduction
    C) parthenogenesis
    D) budding
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. What would you know about a parthenogenic species?
    A) all choices
    B) all the individuals are female
    C) each individual develops from an unfertilized egg
    D) it is asexual
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. which of the following terms describes your first stage as a diploid organism?
    A) egg
    B) gamete
    C) zygote
    D) sperm
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. FSH and LH are produced by:
    A) anterior pituitary
    B) testes
    C) ovaries
    D) adrenal glands
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which of the following structures is the sight of spermatogenesis?
    A) bulbourethral gland
    B) urethra
    C) seminiferous tubule
    D) prostate
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Gametogenesis requires the conclusion of meiosis II. when does this occur in females?
    A) during fetal development
    B) after fertilization
    C) after implantation
    D) at the onset of puberty
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Mutations that affect proteins in the acrosome would impede which of the following functions
    A) locomotion
    B) fertilization
    C) semen production
    D) meiosis
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. In humans, fertilization occurs in the ___, and implantation of the zygote occurs in the ___.
    A) seminiferous tubules; uterus
    B) vagina ; oviduct
    C) oviduct; uterus
    D) urethra; uterus
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. The testicles of male mammals are suspended in the scrotum because:
    A) the optimum temperature for sperm is less than the normal core body  temperature of the organism
    B) the optimum temperature for sperm production is higher than the normal core body temperature of the organism
    C) there is not enough room in the pelvic area for the testicles to be housed internally
    D) it is easier for the body to expel sperm during ejaculation
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. The major difference between an estrous cycle and a menstrual cycle is that:
    A) estrous cycles occur in reptiles, but menstrual cycles occur in mammals
    B) sexual receptivity occurs only around ovulation in the estrous cycle, but it can occur during any time of the menstrual cycle
    C) estrous cycles are determined by FSH, but menstrual cycles are determined by LH
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Which of the following is a major difference between spermatogenesis and oogenisis?
    A) all are significant
    B) spermatogenesis involves meiosis, and oogenesis involves mitosis
    C) spermatogenesis is continuous, but oogenesis is variable
    D) spermatogenesis produces fewer gametes per precursor cell than oogenesis
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. In species with environmental sex determination:
    A) sex is determined during development as an ebryo
    B) environmental conditions and hermaphroditism
    C) environmental conditions determine the sex of an individual
    D) hermaphroditism always occurs
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Internal and external fertilization differ in that all species that:
    A) do not produce an amniotic egg have external fertilization
    B) lay eggs are external fertilizers
    C) produce an amniotic egg have internal fertillization
    D) produce live young have a penis or other intermittent organ
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Which of the following events occur immediately after fertilization:
    A) egg activation
    B) polyspermy defense
    C) cytoplasm changes
    D) all choices
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. Which of the following plays the greatest role in determining how cytoplasmic division occurs during cleavage:
    A) number of chromosomes
    B) sex of the zygote
    C) orientation of vegetal pole
    D) amount of yolk
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Gastrulation is a critical event during development. Why
    A)all choices are significant
    B) grastrulation causes the blastula to deelop a dorsal- ventral axis
    C) gastrulation causes the formation of a primitive digestive tract
    D) gastrulation converts a hollow ball of cells into a bilaterally symmetrical structure
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Gastrulation in a mammal would be most similar to gastrulation in:
    A) none; mammalian gastrulation in unique
    B) tuna
    C) eagle
    D) gecko
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. Somites:
    A) begin at the tail end of the embryo and then move forward in a wavelike fusion.
    B) are derived from endoderm
    C) may vary in number from one species to th next
    D) develop into only one type of tissue per somite
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Of the following processes, which occurs last?
    A) cleavage
    B) neurulation
    C) gastriculation
    D) fertilization
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Which of the following would qualify as a secondary induction?
    A) the formation of the lens of the eye due to induction by the neural ectoderm
    B) both of the choices
    C) differentiation during neurulation by the dorsal ectoderm and mesoderm
    D) neither of the choices
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Your cousin just had twins. She tells you that twinning occurs when two sperm fertilize the same egg. You reply:
    A) no, twinning occurs when an unfertilized egg divides spontaneously
    B) no, only one sperm survives passage through the uterine cervix
    C) no, cortical granules are used to prevent additional sperm penetration
    D) yes, she is right
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. In the Spemann experiment, when the dorsal lip is transplanted, the recipient embryo then has a second source of molecule that:
    A) specifies dorsal fate
    B) inhibits the molecules that specify ventral fate
    C) inhibits the molecules that specify dorsal fate
    D) specifies ventral fate
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. Suppose that a burst of electromagnetic radiation were to strike the blastomeres of only the animal pole of a frog embryo. Which of the following would be most likely to occur?
    A) failure of the reproductive system to develop
    B) a switching of the internal organs so that reverse orientation (left / right) occurs along the midline of the body
    C) the migration of the nervous system to form outside the body
    D) a change or mutation relevant to the epidermis or skin
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. Your Aunt Ida thinks that babies can stimulate the onset of their own labor. You tell her that:
    A) among mammals the onset of labor has been most closely linked to a change in the phases of the moon
    B) body weight determines the onset of labor
    C) changes in fetal hormone levels can affect the onset of labor
    D) it is the mother's circadian clock that determines the onset of labor
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. Drug or alcohol exposure during which of the following stages is most likely to have a profound effect on the neural development of the fetus:
    A) first trimester
    B) third trimester
    C) second trimester
    D) preimplantation
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. Axis formation in amniotic embryos could be affected by:
    A) both choices are correct
    B) neither choice is correct
    C) mutations in the primitive streak
    D) mutations in cells in the dorsal lip of the blastopore
    A)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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