Psych 377 People with challenges

Card Set Information

Psych 377 People with challenges
2014-03-18 23:45:47

Show Answers:

  1. “Disability” Medical Model
    • A medical condition or deficit that limits of otherwise interferes with an individual’s life activities.
    • U.S. view
  2. "Disability" Social Model (AKA “The New Paradigm of Disability”)
    • Focuses more on the interaction of the “whole-person” and her/his environment
    • 360 view
    • WHO view: International Classification of Disability and Health 2001
  3. Rehabilitation Act (1973)
    Prohibited any (direct or indirect) discriminatory employment practices, in connection to federal employment
  4. Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
    • Prohibited any (direct or indirect) discriminatory employment practices, in connection to federal employment
    • Extend those protections to the private sector
  5. Education for all Handicapped Children Act 

    PL 99-457 (1986)
    • Special needs assessment for all ages
    • Special education for children 3-5
  6. Education for all Handicapped Children Act

    PL 101-476 (1990)
    • Attempt to clarify what conditions where covered in PL 99-457
    • Mental retardation, hearing impairments (deafness), speech and language impairments, serious emotional disturbance, orthopeadic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, and all other health impairments or specific learning disabilities.
  7. Education for all Handicapped Children Act

    PL 105-17 (1997)
    • Expanded PL 99-457
    • To better address diversity issues and expand special needs care to inhome and naturalistic settings
    • Defines a child with a disability as well as what it means to be at risk
    • But, it left it up to the states to define what a disability is
  8. Alternative Assessment
    • A mandate to put into place alternative assessment strategies
    • The Federal govt did not specify what it means
  9. Standards for Education and psychological Testing (“The Standards”) (1999)
    • Joint document published by:
    • American Educational Research Association
    • American Psychological Association
    • The National Council on Measurement in Education
    • This is not a law, but it is given the same weight as a law by the courts
  10. Alternative Assessment Accomodation
    • Assessee capabilities
    • Assessor capabilities (Training? Have they encountered this situation or challenges before?)
    • Assessment purpose
    • Scoring inferences (Looking for quality) (Convergent validity)
  11. Convergent validity
    • different tests are testing different things
    • equal does not mean advantage
  12. Functional disability
    • Ability to function has been disrupted
    • Arose primarily in an industrial context (1930’s)
    • Used in an increasingly-wider variety of contexts
    • Considerable debate regarding:
    • Degree to which it is a true disability
    • Assessment accommodation required
    • Educational/workplace support
  13. The ADA and the Workplace
    • ADA prohibits discrimination against a qualified individual with a disability in all employment practices such as:
    • Job application procedures
    • Selection
    • Termination
    • Advancement
    • Compensation
    • Training
    • Recruitment
    • All other employment-related activities
  14. Qualified individual with a disability
    • An individual with a disability who, with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of the employment position that such individual holds or desires
    • Physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity, and/or having a record of such an impairment, and/or being regarded as having such an impairment
    • Not every impairment nor disorder in the DSM constitutes a disability
  15. Reasonable accommodation
    Alteration that can be made to the physical environment or the circumstances surrounding that job
  16. Undue hardship
    Significant difficulty or expense
  17. Visual impairment
    • Estimated 20% by age 65
    • 25% by age 75
    • Related to a variety of activities:
    • Life activities
    • Testing ability
  18. 3- category visual impairment taxonomy (Bauman, 1974)
    • 1. Total impairment (i.e., total blindness)
    •          1a. Light/dark identification
    •          1b. Shape identification
    •                    In form of a light source
    • 2. Unable to read, but can identify large objects
    • 3. Able to read with some assistance
    •         i.e. Magnifying glass
  19. Possible accommodations for the visually impaired
    • Test choice/Normative data comparisons
    • Testing environment
    • Time extensions
    • Material variation
    • Question format
  20. Personality assessment for the visually inpaired
    • Auditory projective tests
    • Skinner the first to come up with one
  21. Auditory projective tests
    • Verbal Summator
    • Auditory Apperception Test
    • Sound Association Test
    • Azzegeddi Test
    • Emotional Factors Inventory
    • Maxfield-Bucholz Social Competency Scale for Blind Preschool Children
  22. Verbal Summator (Skinner, 1934)
    • To snare out complexes
    • The stimuli are noises
  23. Auditory Apperception Test (Stone 1950)
    3 ambiguous sounds are played and subject is asked to come up w a story
  24. Sound Association Test (Wilmer & Husni 1951)
    Similar to auditory apperception test
  25. Azzegeddi Test (Davids)
    Paragraphs are read, but still ambiguous
  26. Maxfield-Bucholz Social Competency Scale for Blind Preschool Children (Maxfield-Bucholz 1957)
    • Based on Vinglan social maturity scale and incorporated it into his scale
    • Assesses social competence, self-help skills, and adaptive behavior
  27. Vocational guidance for the visually impaired
    PRG Interest Inventory
  28. PRG Interest Inventory
    • Constructed based on normative data derived from sight impair individuals and to regards to their vocational and personal interests
    • It asks the assessee to respond to the items as if she was not sight impaired
    • Focus on what you are really interested in and what you would be interested in if you were not disabled
  29. Auditory Impairment
    Vernon (1989): Half the number of person 65+ some degree of hearing
  30. Indications of Auditory Impairment
    • Lack of comprehension
    • Repeated requests to have things repeated
    • Intently watching speaker’s lips (for cues)
  31. Raifman & Vernon (1996)
    • Came to the conclusion that they are not all homogeneous in their frames of mind
    • Depends when they lost their hearing especially if they lost it prior to age 3
    • Before 3, they think about themselves differently (not being part of the population), have occupations where they use their hands a lot
    • The ones after 3, activities and vocations that are more like the non-impaired hearing population
    • There was an identifiable segregation between the groups
    • You could be dealing with cultural differences
  32. Possible accommodations for auditory impairment
    • Written instructions
    • Amplifying assessor’s voice
    • Using interpreter
    • Test materials alterations
  33. Some specific tests for the auditory impaired
    • Elements of the Kaufman and Wechsler tests
    • Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude (Hiskey 1966)
    • Draw-a-Person & House-Tree-Person
    • Hand test would be inappropriate
  34. Visual & Auditory Impairment
    • Back in the 60’s, there was an outbreak of rubella and it led to the birth of children who were deaf and blind
    • 1967: 10 regional centers established for special assessment of multiply-challenged children
  35. Callier-Azusa Scale (Stillman 1974; 1984)
    • Visual & Auditory Impairment
    • Direct observation of individual
    • 2 weeks is recommended
    • “G” and “H” scales
  36. “G” and “H” scales
    • “G”- people who are familiar with the child (parents, teacher)
    • “H”- assessment professionals
  37. Assessment of Development Levels by Observation (Wolf-Schein, 1993)
    • Visual & Auditory Impairment
    • Using systematic observation
    • The purpose is to classify the individual in terms of developmental levels
    • Self-help skills, gross/motor-skills
    • Usually conducted in naturalistic setting
  38. Motor impairment assessments
    • Direct observation
    • Purdue Perceptual-Motor Survey
    • Frostig Movement Skills Test Battery
    • Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Bot 2)
    • Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Bot 2)
  39. Purdue Perceptual-Motor Survey
    • Motor impairment
    • 6-10 yrs
    • Screening measure that assesses general motor ability, fine and gross motor skills
  40. Frostig Movement Skills Test Battery
    • Motor impairment
    • 6-12 yrs
    • Balance strength, flexibility, fine and gross motor skills
  41. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Bot 2)
    • Motor impairment
    • 4-21 yrs
    • 8 sub tests
    • The most frequently used but it takes a long time to administer, a lot of physical space, and a lot of training
  42. Southern California Sensory Integration test
    • Motor impairment
    • Hand-eye coordination, depth perception
  43. Cognitive impairment
    • An assessment of “mental retardation”
    • Traditionally via standardized IQ tests
    • Traditional qualitative labels replaced with required level of support descriptors
  44. Cognitive impairment assessment
    • Standardized IQ tests
    • Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (200)
  45. Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (200)
    • Cognitive impairment
    • Assesses and describes adaptive behavior as well as their functioning in 10 areas
    • 360 model based
    • The degree which she can effectively care for herself and interact with others
    • 5-89 yrs
  46. Standardized IQ tests
    • Cognitive impairment
    • we don't rely on them exclusively anymore
  47. Biopsychosocial Assessment
    • Examines biological, psychological, social, cultural, and environmental variables
    • All inclusive
  48. Bottom line of assessing within a challenged context
    We have to be cultural differences-sensitive assessment