CoreTest.txt

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CoreTest.txt
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2014-03-18 23:26:59
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indiana pesticide core manual applicator
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Based on the objectives for each chapter of the Indiana Pesticide Applicator Core Training Manual
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  1. Insecticide Act of 1910
    The first significant federal effort to regulate companies that manufacture pesticides passed by US Congress
  2. what did the Insecticide Act of 1910 require of pesticide products?
    that they conform to the statements printed on their labels
  3. FIFRA
    • Federal Insecticide Fungicide Rodenticide Act
    • means of regulating rapidly evolving industry enacted by congress in 1947
  4. What did FIFRA require
    • that USDA to register all pesticides distributed via interstate commerce, but registration was a formality and USDA had little enforcement power
    • EPA in 1970 federal government transferred administrative power for FIFRA from USDA to the new EPA
  5. Pesticides used in the US must be registered with
    EPA
  6. legal document requiring applicator to follow all directions
    The pesticide label
  7. Pesticides must be classified for either general use or restricted use. what is restricted use?
    restricted use pesticides may be applied only by, or under the direct supervision of, a certified applicator
  8. each state should have a compliance law administered by a state pesticide regulatory agency that parallels ________
    FIFRA
  9. each state pesticide regulatory agency must have an applicator cerification program meeting at least the minimum standars established by __________
    EPA
  10. The legislative events of the early 70s signaled shift in federal policy focus moved away from regulation for purposes of assuring product efficacy to _________
    reducing risk to man and environment
  11. primary emphasis of FIFRA
    pesticide registration
  12. certified applicator is
    individual who has demonstrated the competency nessary to manage the use of pesticide products so as to minimize associated risks.
  13. When does FIFRA consider a pesticide a general use material
    when the product used in accordance with label directions is no expected to have adverse effects on man or environment.. can be bought OTC
  14. responsible for pesticide regulation and enforcement in INdiana
    OISC, office of the Indiana state chemist
  15. OISc first authorized to enforce Indiana pesticide laws under ____________
    the 1971 pesticide act
  16. the 2 Indiana laws in which pesticide registration and certification and licensing are fully addressed
    • Indiana pesticide use and application law
    • Indiana pesticide registration law
  17. Indiana recognizes 2 types of pesticide applicators
    private and commercial
  18. certified private applicators are issued a permit valid for
    5 years
  19. private applicators cannot
    apply pesticides to property of others, only their own property
  20. commercial applicator is 2 step process -
    take core and one category exam. exception is wood destroying insects
  21. all commercial applicators must be liscened under one of the following classifications
    • - for hire - working on the property of someone hiring the employer
    • - not for hire - working on the property of the employer
    • - public applicator- GOvt
  22. 3 purposes of having license
    • - link applicator to specific business
    • - confines applicator to specific business
    • - confines applicator to those applications indicated by cert categories listed
  23. applicator license is property of __________and expires on
    applicators employer; dec 31
  24. applicator license is invalid
    • moment individual leaves employment firm which they were licened
    • must re apply if new company
  25. some commercial non certified applicators may apply rup for hire if they do so _________________
    under the supervision of a certified licensed applicator. supervisor must remain on site unless the non certified applicatior is a registered technician
  26. a certified licensed applicator may not supervise more than ____ non certified employees unless granted a 60 day emergencyexcemption by OISC
    10
  27. 2 exceptions to supervision requirments
    • - all aerial applicators must be certified and licensed
    • - all individuals employed as wood destroying pest inspectors must be certified and licensed
  28. pesticide applicators must maintain written records of all applications involving RUPs for at least ________
    2 years from date of application
  29. All RUP labels have a RUP statement where?
    Top of front panel on the label
  30. Maintain applicator certification by
    retaking test or taking continuing education credits
  31. Who needs a commercial business license?
    firms engaged in the business of applying pesticides on the property of another, for hire
  32. A supervisor must remain on site with a non-certified applicator unless
    the applicator is a Registered Technician
  33. Records of application need to be kept for how many years?
    2 years
  34. category 7b certified and licensed applicators must also keep termiticide application records on file for at least
    5 years
  35. FIFRA concerned primarily with
    pesticide registration
  36. 4 major groups of pest organsims
    • - insect
    • - vertebrate
    • - weeds
    • - plant disease agents (fungi, viruses, bacteria)
  37. insect metamorphosis
    series of changes insect goes through for egg to adult
  38. the form assumed by a juvenile insect after each molt is called
    an instar
  39. shedding of hard outer covering on insect
    molting
  40. incomplete metamorphosis is
    3 stages egg, nymph, adult - cockroaches and termites
  41. complete metamorphosis
    egg, larva, pupa,adult
  42. weed
    plant growing where not wanted
  43. weed classifications
    • - grasses
    • - sedges - triangular stem,a nd three rows of leaves
    • - broadleaves
  44. all plants go through 4 stages of growth
    • 1 seedlings
    • 2 vegetative state
    • 3 reproductive
    • 4 maturity
  45. annuals
    plants that complete a life cycle in one year
  46. biennials
    require two years to complete their life cycle. emergence and growth first and flower second
  47. perennials
    live longer than 2 years and some forever, can produce new plants by means other than seed
  48. plant pathogens(living agents) 4 types
    • fungi- single celled and multi cell organisms
    • bacteria- -microscopic single celled
    • nematodes - microscopic non segmented worms
    • viruses- require genetic material of host cell
  49. Action threshold
    the population level for a specific pest at which some control measure is justified in order to avoid economic loss of aesthetic damage
  50. 3 non-chemical control options:
    BioControl; Mechanical control; cultural control
  51. 4 major pesticide groups
    herbicides; insecticides; fungicides; rodenticides
  52. advantages to pesticide use:
    effectiveness, speed and ease of controlling pests, reasonable cost, may be only solution
  53. When in life cycle pests most easily controlled?
    immature
  54. Why some application sites more sensitive:
    may be sensitive individuals are there or environmentally sensitive
  55. pesticides may fail because:
    pesticide resistance evolves
  56. pesticide product 2 ingredients
    • active - chemicals control pest
    • inert - solvent AND CARRIERS O DELIVER PRODUCT OR liquids into which the active ingredient is dissolved or chemicals that keep the product from separating
  57. the combination of an active ingredient with a compatible inert ingredient
    formulation
  58. sorption
    when it is necessary to adhere a liquid active ingredient onto a solid surface(powder, dust, or granule)
  59. sorption can be accomplished by 2 possible mechanisms
    • adsorption - a chemical/physical attraction between the active ingredient and the surface of the solid
    • absorption - entry of the active ingredient into the pores of the solid
  60. solution
    when a substance (the solute) is dissolved in a liquid (the solvent).
  61. a solution cannot be mechanically ________
    separated
  62. suspension
    a mixture of finely divided solid particles dispersed in a liquid
  63. most suspensions will have this appearance
    cloudy
  64. spike 80w is formulated as a wettable powder and forms a _______when mixed with water for application
    suspension
  65. emulsion
    a mixture that occurs when one liquid is dispersed (as droplets) in another liquid.
  66. emulsions will have this appearance and will need this to keep from separating
    • milky
    • agitation
  67. formulation selection 6 concerns
    • applicator saftey
    • environmental concern
    • pest biology
    • available equipment
    • surfaces to be protected
    • cost
  68. solid formulations are divided into 2 groups
    • ready to use
    • concentrates
  69. solid formulation that are ready to use and those to be mixed with water
    • ready to use - dusts, granules, pellets
    • mixed with water - wettable powders, dry flowables, soluble powders
  70. dusts -D
    • D; manufactured by the sorption of an active ingredient onto a finely ground, solid inert such as talc, clay, or chalk
    • excellent coverage, but inhalation and drift hazard
  71. dust no longer used in
    large scale outdoor situation, drift hazard
  72. granules -G
    G; similar to dusts but active ingredient is sorbed onto a larger particle ( clay, sand, or plant material); low inhalation and dermal hazard
  73. drawback to granules
    bulk, handling, uniform application, attractive to birds
  74. granules are applied_______and intended for
    dry, soil
  75. pellets -P, PS
    P, PS; similar to granules, but active ingredient is combined with inert materials. uniform in size and shape
  76. pellets are typically used in
    spot applications with high degree of safty for user; but can roll downhill
  77. wettable powders -W, WP
    W, WP; a finely divided solids, typically mineral clays, to which an active ingredient is sorbed; add water and spray; require agitation;can plug up the works
  78. dry flowables aka dispersable granules -DF
    DF; manufactured like wettable powders but the powder is aggragated in the granular particles
  79. water dispersable granules; WDG
    soluble powders; not common, mixed with water in spray tank where they dissolve and form a true solution prior to spraying
  80. liquid formulations
    liquid flowables; microencapsulates; emulsifiable concentrates; solutions
  81. liquid flowables - L, F
    L, F; like wettable powders but the powder, dispersing agents, wetting agents, are mixed with water before packaging.. no inhalation hazard during mixing; can settle out
  82. microencapsulates -M, ME
    M, ME; consist of a solid or liquid(containing an active ingredient) surrounded by a plastic or starch coating.
  83. encapsulation enhances applicator safety and provides _____. Liquid forms form _______ in spray tank
    • time release
    • suspensions
  84. emulsifiable concentrates -E, EC
    E, EC; oil soluble active ingredient dissolved in an appropriate oil based solvent to which an emulsifying agent is added
  85. emulsifiable concentrates are mixed with water and applied as ___________
    spray
  86. emulsifiable concentrates allow ___________ to be sprayed in water as carrier
    oil soluble active ingredients
  87. emulsifiable concentrates disadvantages
    - dermal hazard penetrate skin; odor problem; burn foilage; damage rubber and plastic parts; need to be agitated
  88. solutions
    water soluble active ingredients dissolved in water. require no agitation after thouroghly dissolved
  89. solutions are not ________to equipment
    abrasive
  90. solutions disadvantages
    some that are produces as dissolved salts can be caustic to skin
  91. RTU
    ready to use; no mixing involved
  92. ULV
    ultra low volume, concentrates used in specialty situations( space spraying and fogging)
  93. problem with ULV
    - dermal hazard during mixing and loading because of high concentration of active ingredient; drift potential; inhalation
  94. aerosols
    moves the active ingredient in form of a mist of very small particles
  95. fumigants
    form of a gas; most hazardous because of extreme inhalation danger
  96. reading labels: Tempo 20WP; Pendulum 3.3EC
    -20 % active ingredient, wettable powder; Emulsifiable concentrate with 3.3 pounds of active ingredient per gallon
  97. synergists
    chemicals that can boost the pesticidal activity of active ingredient
  98. common example of a synergist
    piperonyl butoxide
  99. adjuvants
    any compound that facilitates the action of pesticides or modifies characteristics of pesticide formulations or spray solutions.
  100. 3 kinds of adjuvants
    • - activator adjuvants- wetting agents
    • - spray modifier agents (stickers, foams
    • - utility modifiers(emulsifiers, anti foam
  101. Order of Tank Mixing
    1. fill tank 1/3 full with carrier; 2. start agitation; 3. add suspension products first dry then liquids; 4. add solution products; 5. add emulsifiable products; 6. add surfactants or other adjuvants; 7. top off tank with carrier
  102. toxicity
    capacity of a compound to cause harm
  103. toxicity is dose ______
    related
  104. LD50 values;LD50 represents the dose required to kill_______
    • -used to compare acute toxicity of pesticides
    • - 50% of population of test animals
  105. the lower the LD50 the
    - less pesticide required to kill
  106. a pesticide with a n LD50 value of 10 mg/kg is ___ times more toxic than pesticide with LD50 of 100 mg/kg
    - 10
  107. LD50 values are not always given on label. signal words are...
    • - danger, higly toxic
    • - warning, moderately toxic
    • - caution, slighty toxic
  108. when possible choose pesticides with ____ LD 50 values
    - high
  109. ways of entry into body
    • dermal-most common
    • respiration
    • oral
  110. Pesticide storage should be:
    away from people, not flood areas, separate structures, away from surface waters that could be contaminated by runoff.
  111. Storage facility should be:
    locked, signed, one the ground floor, well lighted, cement floor, no floor drains, with exhaust fans, insulated, metal shelves to keep chemicals off the floor, keep separate by classification
  112. How to store:
    with original label, not in huge quantities, keep PPE nearby, keep water available, prepare for cleanup, mark with date of purchase, keep inventory, fire emergency plan
  113. safest formulation usually
    - granular or microencapsulated
  114. best way of removing low level pesticide contamination on clothes
    prerinsing and regular washing
  115. if induce vomit make sure person forward kneeling or__________
    on right side if laying down
  116. after how many hours will pesticide have moved into intestine
    2
  117. absortive charcoals prevent
    absorption from intestine
  118. cause of death in most pesticide poisoning vicitims is
    respiratory failure
  119. applying more than labled rate is
    illegal
  120. best mode of transportation
    back of pick up
  121. pesticides should not be transported in
    compact, midsize autos except as last resort
  122. if car must be used place in
    trunk
  123. never transport in
    • -passenger seat of closed vehicle
    • - allow passengers of pets to ride with pesticides
  124. this must accompany each pesticide for transport
    MSDS
  125. storage facility warning signs should be visible from
    50 ft
  126. store drums on
    sides
  127. pesticides should always be stored on which floor
    ground
  128. title III of Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) also call emergency planning and community right to know act of 1986
    requires storage extremely hazardous materials to be reported to local emergency planning commissions
  129. product labels direct applicators to__________
    each empty pesticide container and triple rinse
  130. triple rinsing is defined by a 1974 federal regulation as the_________each time using a volume of the normal diluent equal to approximately __________of container capacity
    • - flushing of container 3 times; wear PPE
    • - add 10-25 percent clean water; puncture container so it won't get reused.
  131. render all metal and plastic containers unusable by
    puncturing or crushing
  132. In Indiana burning or burying containers is
    strictly prohibited
  133. Recycling pesticide containers
    yes if triple rinsed
  134. two types of drift
    • particle drift- spray droplets
    • vapor drift - gas
  135. oil droplets drift _____than water based
    more
  136. air is least turbulent just before__________and just after ______
    • - sunrise
    • _ sunset
  137. air most gusty between
    2 and 4 pm
  138. when air near soil surface is cooler than air above, can cause droplets to stay suspended in air. do not apply in these conditions
  139. inversion
    • high temps and low relative humidity may _______rate of evaporation of spray droplets
    • increase
  140. even low volatility compounds may become prone to vapor drift at temps above _______
    - 90
  141. how to practice drift control 4
    operate at lowest pressure by nozzle design; use large nozzle opening; use most water possible per treated area; spray near target
  142. positively charged pesticide molecules will adsorb to _________charged clay particles
    negative
  143. process breakdown pesticide molecules into simpler and less toxic compounds
    degradation
  144. Adsorption to soil in pesticides
    clay is neg charge and many pesticides are positive; can cause pesticide failure in soil pesticides when highly adsorptive soil
  145. 3 types of degradation
    • microbial - fungi, algae eat
    • chemical - reacts with water, oxygen
    • photdegradation - breakdown by sunlight
  146. Runoff and pesticides
    loss due to slope, moisture content of soil, presence of vegetation; happens with erosion or raw chemical.
  147. Frequency of pesticide application can influence microbial
    degradation. That is, repeated applications can actually stimulate the buildup of organisms that are effective in degrading the chemical.
  148. leaching
    movement of water down through soil; more in sandy soils than clay; less with high adsorption; helps get pesticide to roots in some cases
  149. the ease which a pesticide dissolves in water
    pesticide solubility
  150. pesticides strongly adsorbed to soil particles are very unlikely to
    leach or get into the ground water
  151. ground water flows through aquifers at rates of a few ______in clay or silts to a few _______in sands
    • - inches per year
    • - inches per day
  152. the more water soluable the pesticide, the ______ the leaching potential
    greater
  153. spray before bees forage ________
    before dawn after dusk or less than 55
  154. passed in 1973 to provide protection for federally listed endangered wild plants and animals
    ESA endangered species act
  155. manufacturers need registration approval to market new product from
    EPA
  156. coordinates agencies internal review and monitor status of registration
    pm
  157. future pesticide products now channeled towar pesticides derived from
    bacteria, virus fungi growth inhibitors
  158. "it is a violation of federal law to use this product in a manner inconstistent with its labeling"
    on every pesticide label
  159. label serves as instructions and
    legal measuring stick
  160. most comprehensive registration is granted under
    section 3 of FIFRA
  161. front panel of every pesticide product must say
    keep out of reach of children
  162. front of container must have
    signal word
  163. generally, minimum protective clothing on statment
    long sleeved shirt, long pants waterproof shoes
  164. label find registration number. 2 sets of numbers. first set is second is
    • 1 identifies registrant
    • 2 represents registration issued to company by EPA
  165. on label before phrase EPA EST is
    establishment number to id locaton
  166. for help with spills call
    chemtrec 800 424 9300

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