Psych 377 Business

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Author:
ceemlo
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267046
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Psych 377 Business
Updated:
2014-03-19 00:45:10
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psych
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  1. Assessment Methods for Selection and Placement
    • Used to determine the suitability of an applicant or incumbent (current employee) for a particular job or assignment
    • Before an assessment can be done, the job-relevant “KSAOs” must first be identified
    • Applicant or incumbents can then be matched with that job or assignment for which they are most suitable
    • One way to assess many KSAOs is thru the use of multiple-item psychological tests
    • Choose tests that are cost effective
  2. General classifications of multiple-item psychological tests
    • Group vs Individual
    • Selected vs Constructed response
    • Paper & pencil vs Performance
    • Power vs Speed
  3. Types of tests used for assessment
    • Ability
    • Psychomotor ability
    • Skills
    • Knowledge and skills tests
    • Personality tests
    • Integrity tests
    • Vocational Interest test
  4. Ability tests
    • Cognitive ability
    • Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability
    • Wonderlic Personnel Test
  5. Wonderlic Personnel Test
    14 different forms
  6. Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability
    First group test in an organizational context
  7. Psychomotor ability tests
    • Hand-eye coordination
    • There has been a shift over the last 30 yrs towards pencil and paper formats:
    • Pursuit based tests
    • Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test
    • MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability
  8. Pursuit based tests
    putting a dot inside circles as fast as you can
  9. Skill tests
    Future state
  10. Knowledge and skills tests
    What you know and what you can do now
  11. Personality tests
    • Measure personality traits and states
    • Trait are consistent across time
    • States are most situational
  12. Integrity tests
    Employee Polygraph Protection Act

    • 2 types of pencil and paper integrity tests:
    • Overt
    • Personality based measures
  13. Employee Polygraph Protection Act
    • Applies to most private employers
    • There are multiple ways to defeat it
    • Placed burden on employers
    • 48hrs advance notice to employees
    • Have to have compelling reason for using this
    • Measurement error cuz you don't want to based everything on one test
    • $10,000 for violation
    • Does not cover federal, state, and local govt
    • Led to the increasing development and use of pencil and paper integrity tests
  14. Overt
    • pencil and paper integrity test
    • Very candid about what they are measuring
    • Asks about attitudes related to theft
    • Personnel Selection Inventory
    • Stanton Survey
    • Reid Report
  15. Personality based measures
    • More indirect/covert
    • Based on the idea we are only focusing to indiv instances, then we will miss the overall picture (organizational delinquency)
    • Such as sabotage and embezzlement (violation of trust)
    • Prognostic test
    • More labor intensive and coslty
    • Employee Reliability Scale (1998)
  16. Prognostic test
    Predict what you are going to do at the job
  17. Vocational Interest test
    Self-Directed Search
  18. Biographical Information (Biodata)
    • Assesses relevant prior experience and work-related characteristics and personal characteristics
    • Past behavior is a good predictor of your future behavior
    • Biodata items could relate to verifiable facts and value judgement (feelings) that the applicant has
  19. Biographical Inventory (AKA Biographical Information Blank)
    Instrument/questionnaire where you are asked questions relating to Biographical Information (Biodata)
  20. Biodata pros
    • The verifiable facts tend to be very accurate
    • It facilitates the understanding of what makes a successful employee rather than just predicting success
    • It has been shown to be a sound predictor of job success
    • Applicants and incumbents may be more inclined to describe past behaviors rather than explain the motivation behind those behaviors
    • May prompt less of a defensive reaction
    • Explain what you did, not why you did it
  21. Biodata cons
    Organizations they demonstrate cultural differences, even when those organizations are within the same sector.

    Because of that (psychometric concern) scoring criteria that apply to one organization may not be transferrable to another organization

    There has to be yet developed a universally scoring system that can cross organizational lines

    Rothstein has demonstrated that it is theoretically possible to develop a scoring system that can cross organizational lines

    One of the reasons why that universal key has not been developed is because you would need a lot of people from the organization spectrum

    It has been criticized as being deterministic 

    You did what you did and you cant go back and change that, and those experiences may be held against you cuz you dont have control over them

    Criticized as being biased

    We know that it works (sound predictor), we just do not know why it works

    Any items that lack face validity could prompt a negative reaction, and thus can be contributing unintentionally to measurement error
  22. Interview
    A meeting for the purpose of collecting information from, and/or the possible selection and/or placement of, the interviewee(s)
  23. Forsythe
    Clothing can profoundly impact the evaluation of an individual
  24. Pingitore et al.
    Perceived applicant weight
  25. Langolis et al. (1980); Rynes & Gerhart (1990)
    • Effect of physical attractiveness
    • Demonstrated across the lifespan
  26. Attractive/Good Looking Stereotype
    Type of Halo Error
  27. Contrast effect
    An individual is rated not just on his merits, but he in contrast to someone else
  28. Impression management
    Conscious or unconscious attempts to control the image that one project in social interactions
  29. Structured Interviews
    • Standardized number of questions
    • There is not room for elaboration
    • It takes subjectivity out of the equation because takes out the effect of similar to me effect etc
    • Reduces inter rater reliability
    • It doesnt afford the 360 view of the individual
  30. Unstructured interviews
    Talk about whatever comes to mind
  31. Defensibility
    Questions must be job related regardless of the format or you can be sued
  32. Assessment methods
    • Work samples
    • Assessment center
    • Graphology
  33. Work samples
    resembles a psychological test, but usually measures a higher-order skill level
  34. Assessment center
    • A series of exercises that measure how well a person can perform a sample of tasks
    • Incorporate multiple job samples
    • Used on managerial positions
  35. Graphology
    • The analysis of handwriting in order to infer personality traits and behavioral tendencies
    • 0 scientific evidence that supports this
  36. Forensic document examiners
    Determine the authenticity of a written manuscript
  37. Predictor
    A test or measure used to forecast an applicant’s/incumbent’s performance
  38. Criterion
    • The measure of the applicant’s/incumbent’s performance
    • Businesses tend to use actual/numbers (profitability)
    • Theoretical
    • Actual
  39. Theoretical criterion
    • Vague
    • Good job performance
  40. Actual criterion
    • Specific
    • Rating of 6 or above from the supervisor
  41. Without a strong correlation between the predictor and criterion?
    prediction is not valid!
  42. Base rate
    • The percentage of applicants who would be expected to succeed once on the job if no formal selection procedures were used
    • Not that challenging
  43. Success rate
    Percentage of people who are successful once on that job
  44. The goal is to facilitate having a higher success rate than?
    your base rate!
  45. Positive relationship
    • Increase true positives and true negatives
    • Greatly increased our success rate over our base rate
    • Because there is a relationship between the predictor and criterion
    • Save money and time
  46. False negatives
    People who we rejected, but who we should of employed
  47. True positives
    People who got employed, and who are successful on the job
  48. True negative
    People who got rejected and who are not successful
  49. False positives
    Employed them but we should not have

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