Psych 377 Personality

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Psych 377 Personality
2014-03-19 02:47:20

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  1. What is “personality”?
    An individual’s unique collection of psychological states and traits
  2. Personality Type
    • Personality category/classification
    • Representative of your collection of psychological states and traits
  3. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    Seeks to identify differences in the way people take information in and make decisions
  4. Self-Directed Search Test
    • Used exclusively in vocational guidance
    • Self-administered, scored, interpreted
    • Problems with overlapping/isolation
    • Need to use more than one source
    • Proposes six personality types:
    • Artistic
    • Enterprising
    • Investigative
    • Social
    • Realistic
    • Conventional
  5. Jenkins Activity Survey
    • Assesses two personality types:
    • Type A
    • Quick to anger, hyper meticulous
    • Type B
    • Laid back, less competitive and anger
  6. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    • 6th grade reading level/not for small children 14+
    • No time limit/60-90 mins to accomplish
    • Yields a personality “profile”
    • 566 True/False items (550 with 16 repeated)
    • 10 clinical scales
    • Each one of those scales represents a collection of items that are trying to measure the same psychological characteristic
    • Item endorsement index
  7. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Lie scale
    Group of items that assesses when the assessee is lying; especially when assessee fails to identify anything negative about him/herself, aka fake good or bad
  8. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Frequency scale
    • Items that a non-psychopathic person would not endorse
    • If assessee endorses the items, something may be wrong with them or they may be faking bad
  9. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) K (“correction”) scale
    • Identifies faking good/endorsing only positive items that cast him/her in a positive way
    • Defensiveness
  10. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) “Cannot say” scale
    • The number of times that individual endorsed cannot say options or skipped them all together for a reason
    • Defensiveness
  11. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) MMPI-A (1992)
    Attempt to change language and content and make it more applicable to adolescents
  12. Traits
    • Any distinguishable, relatively enduring way in which one individual varies from another
    • Expected way that a person is going to behave or think like but that does not mean that they cannot change due to environmental influences
    • ex. Optimism
  13. States
    • More temporary
    • ex. Happiness
  14. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
    • measure for distinguishing between traits and states
    • Respond to a series of short statements with respect to 4 evaluation criteria:
    • How do you feel right now?
    • How strongly do you feel that way?
    • How do you generally feel?
    • How often do you feel that way?
  15. Self-referred
    • Respondent seeks to assess her/his “self-concept” via a self-concept measure
    • Exercise of self-exploration
    • Usually involves some form of “self-report” method
    • Beck Self-Concept Test (Adults)
    • Tennessee Self-Concept Scales and Piers Harris Self-Concept Scale (Kids)
    • “Self-Concept differentiation” (The area of role identity/conflict)
  16. Another as referent
    • 3rd party refers the individual for assessment and may serve as the “respondent”
    • ex. A dementia person may not be able to respond to the questions; so the respondent may answer those for him/her
    • Personality Inventory for Children (PIC/PIC-2) (Children as the referees)
  17. Potential influences on the rating process
    • Rating error
    • Rating context
  18. Rating error
    Leniency, severity, central tendency, halo/horns
  19. Rating context
    the circumstances surrounding the rating process (any and everything connected to the rating context)
  20. What is assessed when a personality assessment is conducted?
    • Primary content
    • Response style
  21. Primary content
    The principal focus of the personality measures are tools used to gain insight into a wide array of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors associated with all aspects of the human experience
  22. Response style
    • The manner in which a test taker responds to test items regardless of their content
    • It speaks to an identifiable respondent / the respondent is responding in the same way to all of the items regardless of the content
  23. Acquiescence
    agreeing with everything (regardless of the content)
  24. Extreme
    • a dichotomous response style (only endorsing the extreme ends of the continuum)
    • Never/always
  25. Gambling/Cautiousness
    it’s an either or style were there will be some kind of expected response to the respondent

    guessing/skip it
  26. Deviance
    • the respondents is endorsing only those atypical responses / such as those that will pertain to the MMPI like frequency
    • trying to fake the responds
  27. Socially desirable
    • social presentation
    • to present yourself in a favorable way
  28. Overly positive
    • you are truly convinced of your own greatness
    • not revealing any negative qualities
  29. Nonacquiescence
    • the essence that it does not apply to the respondent
    • disagreeing with everything regardless of the content
  30. Impression management
    • is all about consciously or unconsciously presenting or withholding information
    • usually present one self in a favorable way
  31. Where are personality test conducted?
    • Traditional settings (Ex. private practice, hospitals)
    • Contemporary settings (Ex. naturalistic, schools, prison
  32. How are personality assessment structured and conducted?
    • Scope
    • Theory
    • Procedures
    • Item format
    • Frame of reference
    • Scoring & interpretation
  33. Scope
    • how broad or narrow of the sampling we are attempting to use
    • Ex. MMPI is abroad
  34. Theory
    a particular assessment may be associated with a theory
  35. Procedures
    • how is this thing administered
    • what are the protocols of the assessment strategies
  36. Item format
    can differ because of frame of reference
  37. Frame of reference
    • the respondent can be asked in the present, future, and past tense
    • you may be asked to change your perspective
    • can be a time reference
  38. Scoring & interpretation
    Nomothetic vs. Idiographic

    The idea that there are a number of characteristic that applies to everyone (several flavors)


    proposes that we are unique entities to ourselves when it come to personality (as unique to us as our finger prints)
  39. How does culture fit into personality assessment?
    Culture can have a strong influence on personality states and traits
  40. Acculturation
    The process by which an individual’s personality is shaped by her/his culture
  41. Culturally sensitive psychological assessment
    • we cannot assume that one size fits all
    • Assessment that is responsive to cultural issues
  42. General classification of personality assessment methods: Objective
    • Typically multiple-choice format
    • little or no room for discretionary scoring
    • There is no room for the assessor to use his/her judgement
    • Selected response
  43. General classification of personality assessment methods: Projective
    • Assessee asked to provide structure for an unstructured stimulus
    • May be differentially scored (score people diff from one to another)
    • Room for discretionary scoring
    • Inter-rater reliability issues
    • Potential bias
    • Constructed response
  44. Projective hypothesis
    • The structure an assessee provides to an unstructured stimulus is indicative of her/his personality characteristics
    • Assessee is asked to comment on something else besides themselves
    • Asked to see what they see in a vague picture and see what they say
    • Considered even more indirect than objective techniques
  45. Rorschach
    • First distinguished for papers on the interpretation of art
    • Ink blood test
    • Because we have so many systems there are a variarity of interpretations/evaluations
  46. Rorschach Initial administration
    Showing the card
  47. Rorschach Inquiry phase
    • Assessee is shown the cards again and the assessors assesses whether the interpretations are repeated
    • The assessor asks the assessee what made it look like that
    • Are there any new novel perceptions?
    • It could denote defensiveness
  48. Rorschach Criterion phase (testing the limits)
    • Used when the assessee is having difficulty with coming up with an interpretation
    • You have to be in a formal operational stage
    • Asks them to comment on a specific part of the shape/helps them narrow their focus
    • Might be a reflection of assessors’ bias
    • Facilitate projection process
  49. Rorschach scoring categories
    • Location
    • On what part of the image are they basing their interpretation?

    • Determinants
    • Qualities of the image that contributed to the ind interpretation

    • Content
    • Can we categorize these responses?
    • Is every image being interpreted having an anatomical category?
    • Look for patterns

    • Popularity
    • Frequency
    • How often does this response occur in the population

    • Form
    • Most controversial
    • An assessment to the degree to which the ind interpretation of that image or parts of that image coenside with its actual configuration
  50. Thematic Apperception Test (“TAT”)
    • Comment on a vague scene in regards to 3 elements:
    • What led up to this scene?
    • What is happening now?
    • What will happen?

    The assessee is believed to identify with the protagonist and as such project onto that protagonist elements his own personality/life

    Has blank cards
  51. Thematic Apperception Test (“TAT”) scoring
    • Need
    • Intra-indv factors
    • Arising from needs that you have

    • Press
    • Extra-personal factors
    • Outside of the person/environmental

    • Thema
    • Interaction between need and press
    • How your needs interact with the environment and play out
  52. Hand Test
    • Assessee is shown a series of cards that depic hands in diff positions
    • Has blank cards
  53. Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study
    • Depics a character who is frustrated
    • Assessee is asked to provide a response
    • It assesses 2 general categories of responses:
    • Aggression
    • Reaction
  54. Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study Aggression
    • Intro-cunitive
    • The aggression is being directed towards himself

    • Extra-punitive
    • Aggression being directed outwards

    • Inpunitive response
    • Non-aggression being expressed
  55. Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study reaction
    • Obstacle dominance
    • The central focus of the indv’s response is on that frustrating barrier

    • Ego defense
    • The central focus of the indv’s response is on protecting the ego of the frustrated person

    • Need persistence
    • Focuses on solving the frustrating problem
  56. Word Association Test
    • 60 words
    • Some neutral, some emotion evoking
    • 3 parts:
    • -The words are presented and the assessee is asked to come up w a word that comes to his mind first
    • -The process is repeated, and the assessors is looking for changes and elapsed time from the first time.
    • -Inquiry phase (what were you thinking? why did you say this?)
  57. Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank
    • Respondents usually put negative responses
    • Participant bias
  58. Draw a Person (DAP)
    • Draw a person without any guidelines or restrictions
    • Useful for children, cognitively challenged, language barriers
    • The structure the assessee imposes on the figure is believed to be revealing of her personality
    • It is assumed that the drawing is of the assessee her self
  59. Draw a Person (DAP) Evaluation criteria
    how realistic is it?

    • is the figure clothed?
    • -Not clothed might indicate a lack of control

    • does the figure have hands?
    • -No hands might indicated helplessness/abuse
  60. House-Tree-Person (HTP)
    • Asks to draw a house, tree, and person in the same scene
    • Might be prone to measurement error
  61. House-Tree-Person (HTP) Evaluation criteria
    • Does the house have windows or doors?
    • -Might be feeling trapped

    What is the size of the tree in relation of the person?

    Is the figure in the scene interacting with the house and tree?
  62. Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD)
    Draw a family interacting
  63. Some criticisms of projective techniques Assumptions: Stimuli
    • The more vague or ambiguous the stimulus, the more projection will occur
    • Has not been conclusively demonstrated
    • The closer the stimulus is to the person, the more projection will occur
  64. Some criticisms of projective techniques Assumptions: Responses
    • Every response is meaningful or revealing/ related to assessee need
    • Not conclusively demonstrated
  65. Some criticisms of projective techniques Assumptions: Assessee
    The assessee does not know what she is revealing about her self
  66. Some criticisms of projective techniques Assumptions: the unconsious
    There are critics who argue the existence of the unconscious mind or that these test tap into something that does not exists
  67. Some criticisms of projective techniques Situational variables
    • Environment
    • Response style
    • Experimenter effects
    • -The assessor may do some projection while evaluating the data
    • Test construction/administration
  68. Some criticisms of projective techniques Psychometric
    Due to being projective tests, it has the appearance of being less psychometrically sound because we can't apply the same evaluation criteria/questions about it than non-projective tests
  69. Behavioral assessment
    Analysis of “behavioral samples”

    • Antecedent
    • Behavior
    • Consequence
  70. Behavioral assessment methods
    • Self reports
    • Observation
    • Situational performance
  71. Self reports
    • Verbal
    • Written
  72. Observation Obtrusive/Overt
    • Assessee may think she is being observed
    • May cause Hawthorn effect
  73. Observation Unobtrusive/Covert
    • Assessee does not know she is being watched
    • Unethical/illegal due to privacy
  74. Situational performance
    Role-playing exercises