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Pain threshold for patients varies. What has this led to?
Different scoring systems and tools to allow for comparisons to be made and intervention success measured
What does the phrase 'drugs don't work' relate to?
The first line treatment includes things such as acupuncture and that drugs may only have a small benefit when compared to the potential harm caused by side effects.
What functions do bones have? (6)
- Support (to soft tissue)
- Protection (internal organs)
- Mineral homeostasis
- Blood cell production
- Triglyceride storage
How do muscles cause movement?
- Skeletal muscles work in pairs.
- Produces movement
What are the three types of joint? What is the definition of a joint?
Three main types: Fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial. When two or more bones are joined together.
What is a fibrous joint? Can you think of any examples?
No synovial cavity. Held by dense connective tissue. Eg, skull, teeth held to the jaw
What is a cartilaginous joint? Can you think of any examples?
No synovial cavity. Joined by cartilage allowing little or no movement. Eg, intervertibral joints.
What is a synovial joint? Can you think of any examples?
Has a synovial cavity between articulating bones. Joint is freely moveable. Eg, knee, fingers, hip, elbow ect
What are ligaments made from? What do they connect?
Dense collagen fibres attached to the periosteum of the articulating bones. They attach bone to bone.
What do tendons connect?
Connect muscle to bone.
What are Bursa (pl. Bursae) and what do they do? Where in the body may they be found?
Small fluid filled sac-like capsule consisting of connective tissue lined with a synovial membrane. Located to reduce friction eg. at shoulder or knee.
What is a joint capsule/what does it do?
Sleeve-like area that encapsulates a synovial joint. Two layers, inner/outer fibrous membrane (outer incl ligaments)
Where is synovial fluid secreted from? What is it's function? What is it's appearance? What are the two main components?
Secreted by the synovial memebrane. Aids in movement and cushioning. Either clear or pale viscous fluid containing hyaluronic acid and interstitial fluid amongst other components.
What general term is used to describe musculoskeletal illness?
'Arthritis' is associated mainly with older patients. What can cause musculoskeletal illness in younger patients?
- Simple sprains and strains
- Long term illness eg lupus erythematosus, juvenile idopathic arthritis, Perthes' disease and ankylosing spondylitis.
Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis typically have different ages at which they occur. Which is a patient likely to have at 40 years old?
Rheumatoid - it tends to peak at the age of 40. Osteoarthritis tends to be confined to patients over 40.