Card Set Information
What type of group are invertebrates?
How do sponges feed?
engulfed through phagocytosis
choanocyte digests nutrients
amoembocyte transport nutrients
How do sponges reproduce?
sequential hermaphroditism (born one sex but change at some point in life)
sperm is a modified choanocyte
egg is a modified amebocytes
larva stage is ciliated
Importance of Sponges
filter feed and therefore clean water
home for other organisms
mutualism with single-celled algae
Human uses for sponges
antibiotics and anticancer drugs
bath and art sponges
(most organisms don't eat, toxic)
Characteristic of Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones and coral)
Eumetazoa (includes most animals other than sponges)
: have true differentiated tissues
-diploblastic= two layers (endo & ecto)
Mostly radially symmetrical
Almost entirely marine
What are the two body forms of Cnidarians? (jelly fish, sea anemones etc.)
: oral end facing upwards and attached to substrate (sea anemones & hydra)
: oral end downwards, move freely through water (jellyfish)
How do Cnidarians capture prey?
Use Cnida (within cnidocyte, usually a nematocyst) for prey and capture
when cnidocyte touches something cnida shoots out and captures/poisons prey
How are classes of Cnidaria differentiated?
Dominant body form
What is the most common class of Cnidaria?
Class Hydrozoa (poly and medusa in life cycle)
alternate between sexual and asexual, but always remain diploid
Polyp-reproduce asexually through budding
Medusa-produced asexually but reproduce sexually, larva returns to polyp
What form is class Scyphozoa?
Mainly medusa (jellyfish)
What form is class Cubozoa?
medusa dominant (box jellies)
What form is class Anthozoa?
ecology of cnidarians
predatory (of zooplankton)
house symbiotic algae
produce dangerous toxins
Importance of cnidarians
reefs provide food and shelter for marine species
: tourism, fishing and aquarium trade
coral bleaching signifies ecological meltdown
Features of clade bilateria
Differentiation of head region:
-anterior concentration of neural ganglia (brain)
-reduced in sedentary animals
Features of Phylum Acoela ("worms")
mostly marine worms
no body cavity (acoelomate)
minimal cephalization (no brain)
use endocellular digestion since they lack anus and gut cavity
Features of Phlum