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  1. What type of group are invertebrates?
  2. How do sponges feed?
    • Suspension feeders
    • engulfed through phagocytosis
    • choanocyte digests nutrients
    • amoembocyte transport nutrients
  3. How do sponges reproduce?
    • sequential hermaphroditism (born one sex but change at some point in life)
    • sperm is a modified choanocyte
    • egg is a modified amebocytes
    • larva stage is ciliated
  4. Importance of Sponges
    • filter feed and therefore clean water
    • home for other organisms
    • mutualism with single-celled algae
  5. Human uses for sponges
    • antibiotics and anticancer drugs
    • bath and art sponges
    • (most organisms don't eat, toxic)
  6. Characteristic of Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones and coral)
    • Eumetazoa (includes most animals other than sponges): have true differentiated tissues
    • -diploblastic= two layers (endo & ecto)
    • -organs
    • Mostly radially symmetrical
    • Almost entirely marine
  7. What are the two body forms of Cnidarians? (jelly fish, sea anemones etc.)
    • Polyp: oral end facing upwards and attached to substrate (sea anemones & hydra)
    • Medusa: oral end downwards, move freely through water (jellyfish)
  8. How do Cnidarians capture prey?
    Use Cnida (within cnidocyte, usually a nematocyst) for prey and captureĀ 

    when cnidocyte touches something cnida shoots out and captures/poisons prey
  9. How are classes of Cnidaria differentiated?
    Dominant body form
  10. What is the most common class of Cnidaria?
    Class Hydrozoa (poly and medusa in life cycle)
  11. Hydrozoa reproduction
    alternate between sexual and asexual, but always remain diploid

    • Polyp-reproduce asexually through budding
    • Medusa-produced asexually but reproduce sexually, larva returns to polyp
  12. What form is class Scyphozoa?
    Mainly medusa (jellyfish)
  13. What form is class Cubozoa?
    • medusa dominant (box jellies)
    • extremely toxic
  14. What form is class Anthozoa?
    • only polyps
    • single-sea anemones
    • colonial-corals
  15. ecology of cnidarians
    • predatory (of zooplankton)
    • house symbiotic algae
    • produce dangerous toxins
  16. Importance of cnidarians
    • reefs provide food and shelter for marine species
    • human: tourism, fishing and aquarium trade
    • coral bleaching signifies ecological meltdown
  17. Features of clade bilateria
    • bilateral symmetry
    • Differentiation of head region:
    • -anterior concentration of neural ganglia (brain)
    • -reduced in sedentary animals
    • triploblastic
  18. Features of Phylum Acoela ("worms")
    • mostly marine worms
    • no body cavity (acoelomate)
    • minimal cephalization (no brain)
    • use endocellular digestion since they lack anus and gut cavity
  19. Features of Phlum
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2014-03-21 19:04:12

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