English 311 final study guide

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  1. What is morphology?
    The study of morphemes, study of word formation.
  2. What are morphemes?
    Smallest unit of meaning or grammatical function.
  3. Free Morphemes:
    Those that can be used as words
  4. Bound Morphemes:
    Can't be used as words. Have to be attached to another morpheme to carry meaning.
  5. Derivational Morpheme:
    Those that make new words from existing words. Care -- To care careless = less is a derivational morpheme, changing the word.
  6. Inflectional morpheme
    those that serve grammatical functions. Only suffixes. Don't change the meaning of the word.
  7. Allomorphemes;
    Make new meanings of words: in and im --- such as impossible (could sound like inpossible)
  8. examples of compounding:
    White + board = whiteboard Two words making one word.
  9. Backformation
    New word by chopping things off. Editor came first, then came edit.
  10. Folk etymology:
    Hamburger came from Hamberg. Making words by mistake.
  11. Define syntax:
    Study of sentence structure
  12. noun:
    Can take the "a" or "an"
  13. Preposition
    Always used before a noun. in, on, etc.
  14. Determiners:
    • To express definiteness, indefiniteness, and quantity: the, this, that, one, two 
  15. Synonymy
    Similarities in meaning
  16. Polysemy
    having more than one meaning often due to semantic extension via metaphor: media, chair, drive 
  17. Metonymy
    parts stand for whole: White house
  18. Gradable Antonymy
    Scale. can compare. Big vs small, good vs bad, short vs long. As in, it's possible to be in the middle.
  19. Complimentary antonymy
    One or the other. no in between. single vs married, dead or alive.
  20. Relational Antonomy
    buy vs sell, send vs receive, teacher vs student.
  21. Homonymy
    sameness in phonetics
  22. Complete homonyms
    share both pronunciation and spelling (Lie, bear, bank)
  23. Homophones
    Same pronunciation different spelling: threw, through, two, too
  24. homographs
    same spelling different pronunciation: Wind, wind, lead, lead.
  25. Semantic ambiguity
    results from a word that has more than one meaning.

    She can't stand kids. Stand can mean 2 things.
  26. structural ambiguity
    results from a sentence or phrase that has more than one underlying structure.

    Big boys and girls. Can mean big boys and girls (generally) or can mean big boys and big girls.
  27. A: the phone is ringing
    B: I'm in the bathroom

    Direct or indirect?
  28. A: the phone is ringing, go answer it. 

    direct or indirect?
  29. Define: speech act theory
    When saying something, the speaker is doing something. A speech act is being performed. 

    For example: I promise to do better.

    That declaration is a statement of doing. To make a promise is to do. 
  30. Cooperative Principle
    Conversation and communication is a cooperative endeavor.
  31. The four maxims:
    Quanity, quality, relation, and manner
  32. Good Quantity:
    Be informative, give the right amount of info.
  33. Good Quality:
    be truthful, don't say what you think is false, don't say that of which you lack evidence.
  34. Relational
    Statement must relate to conversation
  35. Manner
    Be clear, avoid ambiguity
  36. Which maxim does this statement violate?

    A: Where have you been?
    B: Out
  37. What is implicature
    special meaning that comes from the violation of a maxim.
  38. What is the implicataure in this statement:

    A: Wanna go out sometime?
    B: I have homework.
    B doesn't want to go out.
  39. What maxim is this breaking?

    A: Let's get the kids something.
    B: sure, but I veto i-c-e-c-r-e-a-m
    Manner, because it's not clear
  40. What maxim is this breaking? 

    A: What happened to the steak?
    B: The dog looks pretty happy.
    Relation, because the answer wasn't related to the question.
  41. What maxim is this breaking?

    A: The dog chewed up the papers.
    B: He's such a good dog.
    Quality, because the speaker isn't being truthful.
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English 311 final study guide
2014-03-19 17:00:07
english 311 xkuay linguistics

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