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Modes of reproduction
1) Ascomycetes produce their spores inside the asci
2) Basidiomycetes produce their spores outside on sterigmata (clamp connections)
How many spores
1) asci: four spored
2) basidio: eight spored
1) ascomycetes have septa that contain an open pore
2) basidiomycetes contain a closed spore
The Ascomycota have small and usually short-lived dikaryotic states that are dependent upon the monokaryotic state
The Basidiomycota have large and usually long-live dikaryotic states that are not dependent on the monokaryotic state
1) Ascomycetes have one with periphyses
2) Basidiomycetes have it on both sides with no sterile hyphae
What do phallotoxins do?
cyclic heptapeptides; 7 known,, including phalloidin
- - are less toxic
- - act quickly
- 0 afect the liver, which becomes enlarged, dark red and brittle due to blood accumulation; liver cel plasma membranes break down
What do amatoxins do?
cyclic octapeptides; 6 known; including several amanitins
- - act more slowly
- - more toxic
- - mainly affect the liver and its cell nuclei, especially RNA polymerase B; affect transcription, translation, DNA rep inhibited
- - also effect kidneys to a lesser degree
What are the three stages of aminita virosa-phalloide poisoning?
1) develop within 6-24 hours (dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, etc.); the longer hte delay, the better the chances
2) After about 24 hours, there is a false recovery, which can last up to four dayas
- 3) Severe liver and kidney damage
- - recurrence of ab pain, jaundice, hepatic coma, etc.
What are hte two hallucinogenic drugs of mushrooms?
- psilocybin: metabolized to psilocin in vivo
How long do the amanita toxins take to show up?