Child Psy.

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Shelby21
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267128
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Child Psy.
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2014-03-19 20:19:35
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Exam2
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5,6,7
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  1. Cephalocaudal development describes the processes by which development proceeds from the ______ to the lower parts of the body.
    Head or brain
  2. The _______ principle means that development proceeds from the trunk outward.
    Proximodistal
  3. Infants usually double their birth weight in about ____ months and triple it by their first birthday.
    Five
  4. Compared to mothers of healthy infants, mothers of infants with failure to thrive show fewer (positive or negative) feelings toward their infants.
    Positive
  5. After illness or dietary deficiency, children show ________, which is a tendency to return to their genetically determined pattern of growth.
    Canalization
  6. Breast milk contains ______ that can prevent problems such as ear infections, meningitis, tetanus, and chicken pox.
    Antibodies
  7. ______ are the basic units of the nervous system.
    Neurons
  8. Each neuron possesses a cell body, dendrites, and a ________.
    Axon
  9. The brain reaches nearly ____% of its adult weight by the first birthday.
    70
  10. The wrinkled part of the brain, called the ______, enables the child to maintain balance and to control physical behavior.
    Cerebellum
  11. Infants can first raise their heads at about the age of ____ months.
    one
  12. Infants first use a (ulnar or pincer) grasp for holding objects.
    Ulnar
  13. Developmentalists assess infants' ability to stack blocks as a measure of their ______ motor coordination.
    Visual
  14. Infants (sit up or crawl) before they ( sit up and crawl)?
    Sit up, crawl
  15. As children mature, their bones (increase or decrease) in density.
    Increase
  16. Research reveals that both maturation and _______ play indispensable roles in motor development.
    Experience,practice,nurture
  17. Arnold Gesell (did or did not) find that extensive training in hand coordination, block building, and stair climbing gave infants enduring advantages over untrained infants in these skills.
    Did not
  18. At 2 months of age, infants tend to fixate longer on a (scrambled or real) face.
    Real
  19. Neonates direct their attention to the (center or edges) of objects.
    Edges
  20. Researchers have studied depth perception in infants through the use of the visual _______.
    Cliff
  21. Research suggests that infants have developed size constancy by about ______ months.
    2-3
  22. As infants develop, they have (greater or less) ability to screen out meaningless sounds in their native languages.
    Greater
  23. As time passes during infancy, one change in perceptual development is that intentional action replaces _______ (automatic responses to stimulation.)
    capture
  24. Research shows that both nature and _______ are essential to perceptual development.
    Nurture
  25. Piaget labeled children's concepts of the world as _______.
    Schemes
  26. Children try to _______ new events into existing schemes.
    Assimilate
  27. Piagets ______ stage spans the first 2 years of cognitive development.
    Sensorimotor
  28. Primary ______ reactions are characterized by repeating stimulating actions that occur by chance.
    Circular
  29. In _______ circular reactions, activity is repeated because of its effect on the environment.
    Secondary
  30. _________ circular reactions are purposeful adaptations of established schemes to specific situations.
    Tertiary
  31. Object ______is recognition that an object or person continues to exist when out of sight.
    Permanence
  32. The ______-processing approach to cognitive development focuses on how children manipulate or process info.
    information
  33. ________ improves dramatically between the ages of 2 and 6 months.
    memory
  34. The imitation of actions after a time delay is called ______ imitation.
    Deferred
  35. According to Vygotsky, children's cognitive development involves their _______ skilled approaches form joint problem solving with more skilled partners.
    Internalizing
  36. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development  contain mental-scale items and ______-scale items.
    motor
  37. The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale is used to screen for sensory or _______ problems.
    Neurological
  38. _________ recognition memory consists of an infants ability to discriminate previously seen objects from novel objects.
    Visual
  39. _____ is the 1st vocalizing that sounds like human speech.
    Babbling
  40. Children with a _____ language style use language mainly to label objects.
    Referential
  41. Children try to talk about more objects than they have words for, which often results in ________ of the meanings of words.
    Overextension
  42. ________ are single words that are used to express complex meanings.
    Holophrases
  43. The sequence of emergence of the different types of two-word utterances is ( the same or different) in diverse languages.
    the same
  44. _______ theorists explain language development in terms of imitation and reinforcement.
    Learning
  45. According to _______ theory, language acquisition involves an interaction between environmental influences and inborn tendency to acquire language.
    Psycholinguistic
  46. Chomsky refers to this inborn tendency as a language _____ device (LAD).
    Acquisition
  47. Key biological structures that provide a basis for language are based in the (left or right) hemisphere of the cerebral cortex for most ppl.
    left
  48. The brain areas most involved in speech are Broca's area and _______ area.
    Wernicke's
  49. Ainsworth defines _______ as an affectional tie that is formed between one animal or person and another specific individual.
    Attachment
  50. One of Ainsworth's contributions to the field of child development is the ________ method of measuring attachment.
    Strange situation
  51. Broadly, infants have either secure attachment or _______ attachment.
    Insecure
  52. Securely attached infants use the caregiver as a secure base form which to _________ the environment.
    explore
  53. Ainsworth's study of Ugandan infants fount that they at first show ________ attachment.
    Indiscriminate
  54. From the ________ perspective, a caregiver becomes a conditioned reinforcer.
    Behavioral,behaviorist,learning
  55. The Harlows' research with monkeys suggests that ________ comfort is a key source of attachment.
    contact
  56. Lorenz believed that attachment is an inborn ________ action pattern. (FAP)
    fixed
  57. The Harlows found that rhesus infants reared in isolation later (sought or avoided) contact with other monkeys.
    avoided
  58. Spitz noted that many institutionalized children appear to develop a syndrome characterized by _______ and depression.
    withdrawal
  59. Relatively more deaths occur from (physical abuse or neglect)?
    neglect
  60. Children with ________ do not show interest in social interaction, have communication problems and intolerant of change, and display repetitive behavior.
    Autism,autism spectrum disorders
  61. The (minority or majority) of mothers in the US work outside the home.
    majority
  62. Infants with day-care experience play at (higher or lower) developmental levels than do home-reared babies.
    higher
  63. Beisky and his colleagues found that once children are in school, those who had spent more time in day care were rated by teachers, caregivers, and mothers as being (more or less) aggressive toward other children.
    more
  64. The (majority or minority) of infants develop fear of strangers.
    majority
  65. Social _______ is the seeking out of another person's perception of a situation to help us form our own view of it.
    referencing
  66. Emotional _____ consists of the ways which young children control their own emotions.
    regulation
  67. Psychologists devised the mirror technique to assess development of the self-_______.
    concept
  68. The child's ______ consists of the stable individual differences in styles of reaction that are present very early in life.
    temperament
  69. The three basic types of temperament are easy, difficult, and _____ warm up.
    slow
  70. Girls prefer to play with dolls, whereas boys show a preference for playing with transportation toys, as early as ____ months of age.
    12-18

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