Cephalocaudal development describes the processes by which development proceeds from the ______ to the lower parts of the body.
Head or brain
The _______ principle means that development proceeds from the trunk outward.
Infants usually double their birth weight in about ____ months and triple it by their first birthday.
Compared to mothers of healthy infants, mothers of infants with failure to thrive show fewer (positive or negative) feelings toward their infants.
After illness or dietary deficiency, children show ________, which is a tendency to return to their genetically determined pattern of growth.
Breast milk contains ______ that can prevent problems such as ear infections, meningitis, tetanus, and chicken pox.
______ are the basic units of the nervous system.
Each neuron possesses a cell body, dendrites, and a ________.
The brain reaches nearly ____% of its adult weight by the first birthday.
The wrinkled part of the brain, called the ______, enables the child to maintain balance and to control physical behavior.
Infants can first raise their heads at about the age of ____ months.
Infants first use a (ulnar or pincer) grasp for holding objects.
Developmentalists assess infants' ability to stack blocks as a measure of their ______ motor coordination.
Infants (sit up or crawl) before they ( sit up and crawl)?
Sit up, crawl
As children mature, their bones (increase or decrease) in density.
Research reveals that both maturation and _______ play indispensable roles in motor development.
Arnold Gesell (did or did not) find that extensive training in hand coordination, block building, and stair climbing gave infants enduring advantages over untrained infants in these skills.
At 2 months of age, infants tend to fixate longer on a (scrambled or real) face.
Neonates direct their attention to the (center or edges) of objects.
Researchers have studied depth perception in infants through the use of the visual _______.
Research suggests that infants have developed size constancy by about ______ months.
As infants develop, they have (greater or less) ability to screen out meaningless sounds in their native languages.
As time passes during infancy, one change in perceptual development is that intentional action replaces _______ (automatic responses to stimulation.)
Research shows that both nature and _______ are essential to perceptual development.
Piaget labeled children's concepts of the world as _______.
Children try to _______ new events into existing schemes.
Piagets ______ stage spans the first 2 years of cognitive development.
Primary ______ reactions are characterized by repeating stimulating actions that occur by chance.
In _______ circular reactions, activity is repeated because of its effect on the environment.
_________ circular reactions are purposeful adaptations of established schemes to specific situations.
Object ______is recognition that an object or person continues to exist when out of sight.
The ______-processing approach to cognitive development focuses on how children manipulate or process info.
________ improves dramatically between the ages of 2 and 6 months.
The imitation of actions after a time delay is called ______ imitation.
According to Vygotsky, children's cognitive development involves their _______ skilled approaches form joint problem solving with more skilled partners.
The Bayley Scales of Infant Development contain mental-scale items and ______-scale items.
The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale is used to screen for sensory or _______ problems.
_________ recognition memory consists of an infants ability to discriminate previously seen objects from novel objects.
_____ is the 1st vocalizing that sounds like human speech.
Children with a _____ language style use language mainly to label objects.
Children try to talk about more objects than they have words for, which often results in ________ of the meanings of words.
________ are single words that are used to express complex meanings.
The sequence of emergence of the different types of two-word utterances is ( the same or different) in diverse languages.
_______ theorists explain language development in terms of imitation and reinforcement.
According to _______ theory, language acquisition involves an interaction between environmental influences and inborn tendency to acquire language.
Chomsky refers to this inborn tendency as a language _____ device (LAD).
Key biological structures that provide a basis for language are based in the (left or right) hemisphere of the cerebral cortex for most ppl.
The brain areas most involved in speech are Broca's area and _______ area.
Ainsworth defines _______ as an affectional tie that is formed between one animal or person and another specific individual.
One of Ainsworth's contributions to the field of child development is the ________ method of measuring attachment.
Broadly, infants have either secure attachment or _______ attachment.
Securely attached infants use the caregiver as a secure base form which to _________ the environment.
Ainsworth's study of Ugandan infants fount that they at first show ________ attachment.
From the ________ perspective, a caregiver becomes a conditioned reinforcer.
The Harlows' research with monkeys suggests that ________ comfort is a key source of attachment.
Lorenz believed that attachment is an inborn ________ action pattern. (FAP)
The Harlows found that rhesus infants reared in isolation later (sought or avoided) contact with other monkeys.
Spitz noted that many institutionalized children appear to develop a syndrome characterized by _______ and depression.
Relatively more deaths occur from (physical abuse or neglect)?
Children with ________ do not show interest in social interaction, have communication problems and intolerant of change, and display repetitive behavior.
Autism,autism spectrum disorders
The (minority or majority) of mothers in the US work outside the home.
Infants with day-care experience play at (higher or lower) developmental levels than do home-reared babies.
Beisky and his colleagues found that once children are in school, those who had spent more time in day care were rated by teachers, caregivers, and mothers as being (more or less) aggressive toward other children.
The (majority or minority) of infants develop fear of strangers.
Social _______ is the seeking out of another person's perception of a situation to help us form our own view of it.
Emotional _____ consists of the ways which young children control their own emotions.
Psychologists devised the mirror technique to assess development of the self-_______.
The child's ______ consists of the stable individual differences in styles of reaction that are present very early in life.
The three basic types of temperament are easy, difficult, and _____ warm up.
Girls prefer to play with dolls, whereas boys show a preference for playing with transportation toys, as early as ____ months of age.