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Babies acquire language through ____________, not through ___________.
actually using it, not through practicing.
Oral language is learned ___________
Methods of Reading Instruction
Instruction for English Language Learners
- ESL (English Spanish Language), CLAD (Cross-Cultural Language and Academic Development)
- SDAIE (Specially designed Academic Instruction Delivered in English)
Rules for pronunciation
Rules for sentences
Rules for communication (gaining attention, sensitivity to feedback from listener, adjusting speech for listener/situation, effective listening, metacommunication)
Argued that phonics should not be taught at all
Led to commonly used "look-say" approach ensconced in the "Dick and Jane" readers popular in the mid-20th century
The popularity of phonics rose, but many educators associated it with _________ and eschewed it
pedagogy (not academic)
students with various English sounds, then the letters they correspond to.
teaching children to connect sounds with letters or groups of letters (e.g., that the sound /k/ can be represented by c, k, or ck spellings)
Whole Language History
What was it called in 1960s and 70s?
Whole Language is:
- An approach
- A philosophy
- A framework
- A theory
- An orientation
Whole language instruction was predicated on the principle that children could learn to read given:
- Proper motivation
- Access to good literature
- Many reading opportunities
- Focus on meaning
- Instruction to help students use meaning clues to determine the pronunciation of unknown words
- All children in CA public schools shall be taught in English
- All children will be placed in English Language classrooms
- ELLs shall be educated through sheltered English immersion (classroom instruction delivered in English) for a transition period not normally intended to exceed one year
- Waiver by parent written informed consent to be provided anually
- Under waiver conditions children may be transferred to classes where bilingual education techniques are offered
- Individual schools in which 20+ students receive waiver must offer such a class or opportunity to transfer
National Assessment of Education (NAEP)
- Quality education of students including "diverse learners"
- California's DPI audited the schools to ensure compliance and by 1992, roughly 90% of the California 4th graders scored near the bottom of all states participating in a NAEP assessment of reading
Proponents of the whole language initiative point out:
- To the growing number of diverse learners to explain the state's poor performance
- Even though a primary purpose of the standards in the first place was to help diverse learners
White 4th graders in California scored...
near the bottom when compared to white 4th graders across the US
1984: National Academy of Education commissioned report on status of Becoming a Nation of Readers
Report includes that phonics instruction improves children's ability to identify words
- The development is a lifelong process
- At age 4, various parts of brain involved in emotions and intellect become better connected
- Moral development is not only a cognitive process, but a cultural and social one as well
- School children would most admire a child who was punished for not telling who was responsible for throwing a paper plane at the teacher
Piaget's Account: Early childhood
Little regard for rules, no competition
Piaget's Account: Middle childhood
- Try to win according to preexisting rules
- At first, believe that rules of the game have been handed by authority figures and that they cannot be changed (heteronomous moral thinking)
- Between ages 9-11, realize that game rules are social conventions resulting from mutual consent and one can change the rules if most agree (autonomous moral thinking)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning
- Level 1: Pre-Conventional (5 or 6)
- Stage 1: Avoidance of punishment
- Stage 2: To serve one's own needs or interests in a world where other people have their own interests
- Level 2: Conventional (10 or 11)
- Stage 1: Need to be a good person in own and others' eyes
- Stage 2: Keep the institution going as a whole. What would happen if everyone did?
- Level 3: Post-Conventional (Adolescence)
- Stage 1: Sense of obligation to law because one's social contract Feeling contractual commitment. Laws based on "greatest good for greatest number"
- Stage 2: A belief in the validity of universal moral principles
Moral Rules vs. Social Conventions
- Moral rules: result in harm to another person
- Social rules: Disrupt the social order
Reasoning about moral rules does not depend on context (i.e., fighting is perceived as wrong across contexts)
Reasoning about problems involving social conventions depends upon the context and who is in charge (i.e., children at all ages understood that principles have the right to make rules in their own school but not in children's homes)
From Reasoning to Acting
- FINDINGSHigher levels of reasoning are positively related to higher levels of prosocial behavior
Comprehensive Approach to Values and Character Education
- Teacher as caregiver, model, and mentor
- A moral classroom community
- Moral discipline
- Democratic classroom environment
- Teaching values through the curriculum
- Cooperative learning
- Teaching conflict resoluation
- Fostering responsibility and value of learninggg
- Encouraging moral reflection
David and Roger Johnson
- Conflict resolution vs. violence prevention?
- Peer mediation programs?
Zero Tolerance Policies
- Developmentally Appropriate Practice